Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA, which constitutes the initial reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis .
Sasaki, "Acetyl-CoA carboxylase in higher plants: most plants other than gramineae have both the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic forms of this enzyme," Plant & Cell Physiology, vol.
Dormann, "Increased fatty acid production in potato by engineering of acetyl-CoA carboxylase," Planta, vol.
Suormala, "Multiple carboxylase
deficiency: inherited and acquired disorders of biotin metabolism," International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol.
Physical and kinetic properties of photosynthetic PEP carboxylase in developing apple fruit.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: A new era of structural biology.
Well-watered [right arrow] Moisture stressed [[Psi].sub.leaf] (MPa) -1.0 -1.9 -2.8 PS-[CO.sub.2] ([micro] 44 27 13 mol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) PR-[O.sub.2] ([micro] mol 33 24 13 [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) Energy dissipation (%): PS 26 16 9 PR 20 14 9 Total 46 30 18 To what extent rubisco acts as carboxylase or oxygenase depends upon the relative concentrations of [CO.sub.2] and [O.sub.2] presented to the enzyme.
Another alternative route occurs at the end of glycolysis where a "malate shunt" (Amthor, 1994a) may bypass pyruvate kinase through production of malate from PEP by PEP carboxylase. The shunt is favored when ADP is in short supply.
Variations in [K.sub.m]([CO.sub.2]) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase among grasses.
Among enzymes involved in lipogenesis, acetyl- coenzyme A carboxylase a (ACACA) has been considered for its special regulatory role in fatty acid biosynthesis by catalyzing the ATP-dependent formation of malonyl-coenzyme A (Cronan and Waldrop, 2002; Badaoui et al., 2007; Garcia -fernandez et al, 2010).
Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase: characterization molecular cloning, and evidence for two isoforms.
Goat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha: molecular characterization, polymorphism, and association with milk traits.