It should be noted that the terminologies used to classify end products are sometimes unsuitable, since the 3 pathways (glycation, oxidation, and carbonylation
) are often intertwined.
The increase in protein carbonylation
upon UVA exposure was also reported in human dermis and epidermis  and in skin cell culture experiments .
Eliseev, Catalytic Carbonylation
in Ionic Liquids, Solid Fuel Chem., 44, 197 (2010).
Milzani, "Protein carbonylation
in human diseases," Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol.
However, protein carbonylation
was more intense in PRE and HD than in AOID and AAA group.
Our experiments with SIN-1 modification of fibrinogen revealed that, at physiological shear rate (1800 [s.sup.-1]), the relatively small extent of carbonylation
(as compared with both other reagents) leads to the significant enhancement of dynamic platelet adhesion as compared with control sample.
Two-dimensional oxyblotting is a method that permits examination of both the concentrations and carbonylation
of multiple proteins by slightly modifying 2-DE and combining it with immunoblotting.
Chapter topics include alkylation and allylation adjacent to a carbonyl group, asymmetric alkylation or aminatin of allylic esters, Suzuki, Beck and Sonogashira coupling reactions, cross-coupling reactions, regioselective or asymmetric 1,2-addition to aldehydes, olefin metathesis reactions, cyclization reactions, asymmetric aldol and Michael reactions, and steroeselective hydroformylation, carbonylation
and carboxylation reactions.
Kumiyama et al., "Effect of aging and late onset dietary restriction on antioxidant enzymes and proteasome activities, and protein carbonylation
of rat skeletal muscle and tendon," Experimental gerontology, vol.
This was associated with an improvement of myocardial RV energy status, decreasing the myocardial protein carbonylation
Yang, "Study on Ni/C catalysts for vapor phase carbonylation
of ethanol," Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, vol.
Because of the small amount of leonurine in HL and the poor purity of its extracts, we explored synthesis of leonurine from syringic acid by carbonylation
, reaction with [SOCl.sub.2] with a modified method, as previously reported (Zhu et al.