(redirected from Carbonhydrate)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.


a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the latter two usually in the proportions of water (CH2O)n. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly-, and heterosaccharides. Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for the body; 1 g of carbohydrate yields 4 calories. They are present, at least in small quantities, in most foods, but the chief sources are the sugars and starches. Food substances that are almost pure sugar include granulated sugar, maple sugar, honey, and molasses. The monosaccharides (simple sugars) include glucose and fructose. galactose, another simple sugar, is produced by the digestion or hydrolysis of lactose. The disaccharides (double sugars) include sucrose (white sugar, found in sugar cane or sugar beets), maltose, and lactose. All ripe fruits and many vegetables contain natural sugars. The starches are present in such foods as rice, wheat, and potatoes. Carbohydrates may be stored in the body as glycogen for future use. If they are eaten in excessive amounts, however, the body changes them into fats and stores them in that form.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. Any of a group of organic compounds, including sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums, that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that originate chiefly as products of photosynthesis. Carbohydrates serve as a major energy source for living things.
2. A food, such as bread, rice, or potatoes, that is composed largely of these substances.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


Aldehyde or ketone derivatives of a polyhydric—especially pentahydric and hexahydric—alcohol. The name derives from ratio of hydrogen and oxygen-Cn(H2O)n; the major carbohydrates are starches, sugars, celluloses and gums, which are classified into monosaccharides (e.g., glucose), disaccharides (e.g., sucrose), trisaccharides (e.g., raffinose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose and glycogen).

An abundant organic compound, it is one of the three main classes of foods and a principal source of energy. Ingested carbohydrates are sugars and starches, which are metabolised into glucose or assembled into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscle for future use.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


Nutrition An abundant organic compound, which is one of the 3 main classes of foods and a principal source of energy; ingested carbohydrates are sugars and starches, which are metabolized into glucose, or assembled into glycogen, and stored in the liver and muscle for future use. See Complex. Cf Fats, Protein.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; sugars are simple carbohydrates, starches are complex carbohydrates.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
Carbohydrateclick for a larger image
Fig. 89 Carbohydrate . The types of carbohydrate.


a family of organic molecules (hydrates of carbon) with the general formula (CH2 O)x, ranging from simple sugars such as glucose and fructose to complex molecules such as starch and cellulose. All complex carbohydrates are built up from simple units called MONOSACCHARIDES which cannot be hydrolysed to a simpler structure.

The types of carbohydrate are described in detail under their own heading, but are summarized in Fig. 89.

Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Patient discussion about carbohydrate

Q. What are carbohydrates and where they are found and what is their nutritional value?

A. You got it.

More discussions about carbohydrate
This content is provided by iMedix and is subject to iMedix Terms. The Questions and Answers are not endorsed or recommended and are made available by patients, not doctors.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ketogenic diet is a nutritional regime containing high fat, low protein and low carbonhydrate and its calorie and total fluid content is limited to meet 80% of daily requirement.
The fact that glycogen storage disease 1 affects lipid and purin metabolism in addition to carbonhydrate metabolism is reflected with hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hyperlactemia and increased liver enzymes in the laboratory tests.
Solutions of inorganic phosphate ([Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4]), casamino acids, amino acids, carbonhydrates, protein supplements (gelatin, albumin, and casein), and salts of divalent metals were sterilized separately and added into the medium before inoculation in indicated concentrations.
The content of data is as follows: a new developed diet, that is, low in fats, carbonhydrates, and cholesterol, is intended to be used by people with heart disease.
The bands in the range 1252.55-1157.52 [cm.sup.-1] were attributed to benzene hydroxyl C-O bond of lignin or C-O bond of carbonhydrates, whereas, the bands in the range 1157.52-1047.27 [cm.sup.-1] mainly correspond to vibrations of O-H and C-O-C, probably due to P-O-C and Si-O bond.
When the violance of the exercise increases, carbonhydrates have become a main source of energy.
A healthful diet, which includes fish, organic whole foods with complex, low-glycemic index carbonhydrates, and raw dairy products complements the use of supplements.
The physicochemical degradation of the membrane comes from (i) the breaking of the electrostatic interactions and the intermolecular bonds, (ii) the depolymerization of the membrane, and (iii) the hydrolysis of the membrane which is responsible of the formation of harmless compounds such as carbonhydrates, carbon dioxide and water.
Polylactic acid is produced by combining large numbers of lactic acid molecules from fermented carbonhydrates such as plant sugars.