Amplification of blaNDM-1 producers: Plasmid DNA was extracted for selected phenotypically carbapenems
resistant isolates using GeneJET Plasmid Miniprep Kit by Thermo Fisher Scientific Lithuania, according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Isolates showing resistance to carbapenems
(Imipenem 10ug) were screened for presence of MBL by the IMP-EDTA double disk-diffusion test (DDDT).
In our study, Colistin and Polymyxin-B antibiotics had 100% sensitivity followed by carbapenems
(86%), Amikacin (74.4%), Moxifloxacin (69.8%), levofloxacin (62.8%), Ciprofloxacin (62.8%), Piperacillin-tazobactam (62.8%) and the least was in Azithromycin (32.6%).
There are currently few antibiotics to combat bacteria that are resistant to Carbapenems
- still a last-resort antibiotic class - and worldwide spread of blaNDM-1 and related ARGs is a concern.
Instead, Azithromycin should be used to treat patients with suspected uncomplicated typhoid fever and carbapenems
for patients with suspected severe or complicated typhoid fever.
However, there was no difference between the three combinations with tigecycline, carbapenems
, and amikacin.
Isolates found to show reduced susceptibility to the carbapenems
as per antibiotic breakpoints recommended by CLSI was phenotypically confirmed for MBL production.
Like other BLIs, Avibactam is designed to protect beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems
from being destroyed by beta-lactamase enzymes that bacteria produce to defend themselves.
are one of the few therapeutic agents we have left.
are a group of broad-spectrum [beta]-lactams of last resort for the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant bacteria due to their high capacity of entry, low toxicity, high affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBP's) and stability against [beta]-lactamases (2).
are our "end of the line" antibiotics for some of our most common bacteria responsible for sepsis such as E.
 As carbapenems
are the considered to be the potent antimicrobial agent against multidrug-resistant P.