Canker Sores


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Canker sores

 

Definition


Canker sores are small white or yellowish sores or ulcers that develop inside the mouth. They are painful, self-healing, and can recur.

Description


Canker sores occur on the inside of the mouth, usually on the inside of the lips, cheeks, and/or soft palate. They also can occur on the tongue and in the throat. Often, several canker sores will appear at the same time and may be grouped in clusters. Canker sores appear as a whitish, round area with a red border. The sores are painful and sensitive to touch. The average canker sore is about .25 inch (60 mm) in diameter, although they can occasionally be larger. Canker sores are not infectious.
Approximately 20% of Americans experience recurring canker sores. They are more common in women than in men. Women are more likely to have canker sores at certain times during their menstrual period, suggesting that they may be influenced by female hormones.
Canker sores are sometimes confused with cold sores. Cold sores are caused by herpes simplex virus. This disease, also known as oral herpes or fever blisters, can occur anywhere on the body. Most commonly, herpes infection occurs on the outside of the lips and the gums, and much less frequently on the inside the mouth. Unlike canker sores, cold sores are infectious.

Causes and symptoms


The exact cause of canker sores is uncertain, however, they seem to be related to a localized immune reaction. Other proposed causes for this disease are trauma to the affected areas from toothbrush scrapes or dental cleanings, stress, hormones, and food allergies. They may also be related to nutritional deficiencies.
Canker sores commonly tend to appear in response to stress. The initial symptom is a tingling or mildly painful, itching sensation in the area where the sore will appear. After one to three days, a small red swelling appears. The sore is round and whitish in color with a grayish colored center. Usually, there is a red ring of inflammation surrounding the sore. The main symptom is pain. Canker sores can be very painful, especially if the tongue touches them repeatedly. They last for one to two weeks and heal on their own.

Diagnosis


Canker sores are diagnosed by observation of the blister. A distinction between canker sores and cold sores must be made because cold sores are infectious, and herpes infection can be transmitted to other people. The two sores can usually be distinguished visually, and there are specific diagnostic tests for herpes infection.

Treatment


Since canker sores heal by themselves, treatment is not usually necessary. Pain relief remedies, such as over-the-counter topical anesthetics, may be used to reduce the pain of the sores. The use of corticosteroid ointments sometimes speeds healing. Avoidance of spicy or acidic foods can help reduce the pain associated with canker sores.

Alternative treatment


Alternative therapies for canker sores are aimed at healing existing sores and preventing their recurrence. Several herbal remedies, including calendula (Calendula officinalis), myrrh (Commiphora molmol), and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), may be helpful in the treatment of existing sores. Compresses soaked in teas made from these herbs are applied directly to the sores. The tannic acid in a tea bag can also help dry up the sores when the wet tea bag is used as a compress. Taking dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) tea or capsules may help heal sores and prevent future outbreaks. Since canker sores are often brought on by stress, such stress-relieving techniques as meditation, guided imagery, and certain acupressure exercises may help prevent canker sores or lessen their severity.

Prognosis


There is no cure for canker sores. They do not get larger or occur more frequently with age.

Key Terms


Inflammation
A local reaction to tissue injury or damage, usually characterized by pain, swelling, and redness.

Ulcer
A site of damage to the skin or mucous membrane that is characterized by the formation of pus, death of tissue, and is frequently accompanied by an inflammatory reaction.

For Your Information

Resources


Websites

  • "Canker Sores." .Medline Plus Encyclopedia, National Institutes of Health December 18, 2006 [cited December 17, 2008]. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000998.htm.

  • "Fever Blisters and Canker Sores." National Institute of Dental and Cranioascial Research. July 1992 [cited December 17, 2008]. http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/health/fever-blister/fever-canker.html.

  • "Canker Sores-:Topic Overview" Web MD. December 1, 2006 [cited December 17, 2008]. http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/canker-sores-topic-overview.

Canker sores

aph·tha

, pl.

aph·thae

(af'thă, af'thē), Avoid the misspelling/mispronunciation aptha.
1. In the singular, a small ulcer on a mucous membrane.
2. In the plural, stomatitis characterized by intermittent episodes of painful oral ulcers of unknown etiology that are covered by gray exudate, are surrounded by an erythematous halo, and range from several millimeters to 2 cm in diameter; they are limited to oral mucous membranes that are not bound to periosteum, occur as solitary or multiple lesions, and heal spontaneously in 1-2 weeks. Synonym(s): aphthae minor, aphthous stomatitis, canker sores, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, recurrent aphthous ulcers, recurrent ulcerative stomatitis, ulcerative stomatitis
[G. ulceration]

aph·tha

, pl. aphthae (af'thă, -thē)
1. In the singular, a small ulcer on a mucous membrane.
2. In the plural, stomatitis characterized by episodes of painful oral ulcers of unknown etiology that are covered by gray exudate, are surrounded by an erythematous halo, and that heal spontaneously in 1-2 weeks.
Synonym(s): aphthae minor, aphthous stomatitis, canker sores, recurrent aphthous ulcers, recurrent ulcerative stomatitis, ulcerative stomatitis.
[G. ulceration]

aph·tha

, pl. aphthae (af'thă, -thē) Avoid the misspelling/mispronunciation aptha.
1. In the singular, a small ulcer on a mucous membrane.
2. In the plural, stomatitis characterized by intermittent episodes of painful oral ulcers of unknown etiology that are covered by gray exudate, are surrounded by an erythematous halo, and range from several millimeters to 2 cm in diameter; they are limited to oral mucous membranes that are not bound to periosteum, occur as solitary or multiple lesions, and heal spontaneously in 1-2 weeks.
Synonym(s): aphthae minor, aphthous stomatitis, canker sores, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, recurrent aphthous ulcers, recurrent ulcerative stomatitis, ulcerative stomatitis.
[G. ulceration]

Patient discussion about Canker Sores

Q. Is it possible to prevent appearance of oral aphthae? I get these a lot and lately I've heard it comes as a result of stress or weak immune system. Is that true? Is there a way to make it go away forever????? anyone who has ever had this annoying thing in his mouth knows what I'm talking about... I know all the possible curing ways- I'm looking for prevention now...thanx!

A. welcome to my life! every time the air get's a little dry i get 1-3 aphthae and can't eat for the next 4-6 days. so i investigated a little, and i'm sorry but right now no one really knows what causes them. they know that from some reason the body get's an immune reaction in the oral mucosa and that causes an ulcer. but a friend of mine went to an Ayurveda therapist that told him to stop eating tomatoes and eggplants (in any way, cooked,baked,fried) and he says he stop getting aphthae. so you might try Ayurveda for prevention. it could help...

Q. aphthous stomatitis can someone please explain me what it is? and what is the best way to treat it?

A. A canker sore (aphthous stomatitis) is an illness that causes small ulcers to appear in the mouth, usually inside the lips, on the cheeks, or on the tongue. What causes aphthous stomatitis (canker sores)?
The exact cause of this disease is not known. There are many factors that are thought to be involved with the development of canker sores, including:

Weakened immune system
Certain allergies may cause the lesions to appear, such as:
Coffee
Chocolate
Cheese
Nuts
Citrus fruits
Potatoes
Stress
Viruses and bacteria

The following are the most common symptoms of aphthous stomatitis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Ulcers in the mouth, usually inside the lips, on the cheeks, or on the tongue
Ulcers that are covered with a yellow layer and have a red base
For the full article:
http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/oral/diagnose/aphthous-stomatitis.htm Hope this helps.



More discussions about Canker Sores
References in periodicals archive ?
This lineup also includes Canker Sore Swish Pods mouthwash, which come in liquid packets.
I recalled that Cindy and Keith had been concerned about the painful multiple canker sores that their daughter was experiencing at the time of her illness.
During the first four months, all of the participants had fewer canker sores with a shorter duration.
Moreover, after 7 days, canker sores had shrunk by 90 percent in the treated group but had grown slightly in the untreated people.
Don't confuse canker sores with cold sores, which are caused by the Herpes simplex type 1 virus.
It sticks to the canker sore within seconds and forms a clear, gel-like protective seal that lasts eight to 12 hours.
The woman was originally from Jamaica; when she was growing up, this bitter-tasting herb was used as a compress for canker sores.
A young girl visited a dentist's office with a mouth full of canker sores and appeared very pale.
Orajel Mouth-Aid is designed to provide maximum relief from the pain of canker sores, cold sores and fever blisters.
In between such visits, the use of our favorite herbal preparations, mouthwashes and toothpastes, as well as a little first aid in the temporary treatment of canker sores and toothaches, is a valuable addition to even the best care.
Uncommon canker sores may be manifestations of underlying disease, Dr.
Recently, however, the FDA approved an oral paste, called Aphthasol, which can heal canker sores in a day or two.