Candida vaginitis

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Related to Candida vulvovaginitis: Yeast infection


1. inflammation of any sheathlike structure.
2. inflammation of the vagina; called also colpitis.

Etiology. Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa is invariably related to a disturbance in normal vaginal physiology. A healthy vagina depends on (1) normal estrogen secretion to maintain a thick squamous epithelium containing glycogen and (2) chemical reactions beginning with the glycogen thus available. The glycogen stimulates the growth of lactobacilli, which are beneficial normal vaginal flora that metabolize glycogen to form lactic acid. The lactic acid maintains vaginal acidity at a pH of 4.0 to 4.5.

Tampons, condoms, neglected diaphragms, and irritating douches or deodorant sprays can upset the vagina's environmental balance and produce abnormal vaginal discharge. Hyperglycemia and antibiotics can also disturb this balance. However, infectious agents are the most common cause of vaginitis; these include Trichomonas and Candida. (See also bacterial vaginosis.) Characteristics of these types of vaginitis and medical treatment and nursing intervention are summarized in the accompanying table.
Patient Education. Patients with infectious vaginitis need to know the purpose and importance of diagnostic testing and examination to verify a diagnosis, the specific type of infection or infections thus identified, and changes that may need to be made in their sexual activity to avoid reinfection. Sexual intercourse is avoided while active symptoms are present. Concurrent treatment of the partner is often necessary to avoid cyclic reinfection of one another. Condoms are encouraged because they can provide both the man and woman with some protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

In regard to prescribed treatment, the patient should be instructed to take all of the medication exactly as prescribed; a follow-up examination and testing may be necessary. If the woman has a cervical Pap smear done while she has vaginitis, there may be an abnormal test result.
adhesive vaginitis atrophic vaginitis with ulceration and exfoliation of the mucosa result in adhesions of the membranes; opposite surfaces may adhere to each other, causing obliteration of the vaginal canal. Called also senile vaginitis.
atrophic vaginitis vaginitis occurring in postmenopausal women, associated with estrogen deficiency. The two most common types are senile vulvovaginitis and adhesive vaginitis.
Candida vaginitis (candidal vaginitis) vulvovaginal candidiasis.
desquamative inflammatory vaginitis a form resembling atrophic vaginitis but affecting women with normal estrogen levels.
emphysematous vaginitis inflammation of the vagina and adjacent cervix, characterized by numerous asymptomatic, gas-filled cystlike lesions.
senile vaginitis adhesive vaginitis.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The association between each of the other nutrients and a history of Candida vulvovaginitis was evaluated by logistic regression while controlling for kilocalories to assess potential confounding.
The results presented here suggest that an increased caloric intake highly correlated with carbohydrate intake is associated with the history of Candida vulvovaginitis. A study by Horowitz et al(2) evaluated the ingestion of sugar containing foods, including dairy products, concentrated sweets, and alcohol, although they did not evaluate total caloric intake.
In this study increased ingestion of neutral detergent fiber, which consists of the nonabsorbable fiber not including water-soluble polysaccharide, increased the risk of Candida vulvovaginitis. A trend was noted between crude fiber ingestion and this infection.
A limitation of this study is that the dependent variable (the history of Candida vulvovaginitis) relied upon recall and timing of the diagnosis.
Other potential risk factors may be associated with the history of Candida vulvovaginitis, including the presence of diabetes mellitus, the use of antibiotics or oral contraceptives, gastrointestinal colonization, immunological deficiencies, or sexual transmission.
In summary, in a population-based group of 373 women, aged 20 to 49 years, 44.5% had a history of Candida vulvovaginitis in the previous 5 years.