Il recupero di una dimensione etica della funzione dello scrittore non si persegue ne con gesti cosi estremi, ne tantomeno mimando "nei comportamenti i comportamenti della lotta operaia" (70-71), per esempio con atti di picchettaggio e volantinaggio davanti ai cancelli
delle fabbriche, ma solo attraverso altre piu sofisticate azioni di sabotaggio, "illegali" perche alternative al sistema:
Every such study reviewed produced increases in teachers' praise statements without explicit training (Barton & Wolery, 2007; Capizzi, Wehby, & Sandmel, 2010; Colvin, Flannery, Sugai, & Mon-egan, 2009; Hawkins & Heflin, 2010; Hemmeter, Snyder, Kinder, & Artman, 2011; Kalis, Vannest, & Parker, 2007; Mace, Cancelli
, & Ma-nos, 1983; Mesa, Lewis-Palmer, & Reinke, 2005; Rathel, Drasgow, & Christie, 2008; Reinke, Lewis-Palmer, & Merrell, 2008; Sutherland et at, 2000).
Researchers in this area have focused on the coping strategies used by many African Americans and other ethnic group members who have been historically marginalized in the United States (Utsey, Ponterotto, Reynolds, & Cancelli
Early evaluation research focused on consultation training and primarily measured consultant skill acquisition (Brown, Kratochwill, & Bergan, 1982; Duley, Cancelli
, Kratochwill, Bergan, & Meredith, 1983).
This situation represents a significant source of psychological stress for mothers (Antle, Wells, Goldie, DeMatteo, & King, 2001; Marcenko & Samost, 1999; Withell, 2000) and for children (Atwine, Cantor-Graae, & Bajunirwe, 2005; Woodring, Cancelli
, Ponterotto, & Keitel, 2005).
Research findings on student and teacher variables from these and similar studies using ecobehavioral observation methodologies show a well-established link between student achievement and time spent in academic engagement and instructional factors (Brophy & Good, 1986; Greenwood, 1991; Salend, 2000; Wallace et al., 2002) and show that the academic engagement of students with disabilities is significantly higher during teacher-directed instruction than during seatwork in both resource room and general education settings (Friedman, Cancelli
, & Yoshida, 1988).
As Cotter has observed, Hopkins' use of the word "unchancelling" may be linked to the Latin cancelli
or "lattices" as it appears in Song 2.9: "Behold he standeth behind our wall, looking through the windows, looking through the lattices" (p.
Research has also found that racism negatively impacts African Americans' physical well-being and that chronic exposure to racism is associated with a host of acute racism reactions, such as race-related stress (Utsey, Ponterotto, Reynolds, & Cancelli
, 2000; Moore, 2000; Fernando, 1988; Griffin, 1991; Landrine & Klonoff, 1996).
The last word (used in place of the usual cancelli
) receives explanation in a later appearance (234), this time its gender (feminine) correct.