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Related to Campylobacter infection: campylobacter enteritis, Campylobacter gastroenteritis




Campylobacteriosis refers to infection by the group of bacteria known as Campylobacter. The term comes from the Greek word meaning "curved rod" referring to the bacteria's curved shape. The most common disease caused by these organisms is diarrhea, which most often affects children and younger adults. Campylobacter infections account for a substantial percent of food-borne illness encountered each year.


There are over 15 different subtypes, all of which are curved Gram-negative rods. C. jeuni is the subtype that most often causes gastrointestinal disease. However, some species such as C. fetus produce disease outside the intestine, particularly in those with altered immune systems, such as people with AIDS, cancer, and liver disease.
Campylobacter are often found in the intestine of animals raised for food produce and pets. Infected animals often have no symptoms. Chickens are the most common source of human infection. It is estimated that 1% of the general population is infected each year.

Causes and symptoms

Improper or incomplete food preparation is the most common way the disease is spread, with poultry accounting for over half the cases. Untreated water and raw milk are also potential sources.
The incubation period after exposure is from one to 10 days. A day or two of mild fever, muscle aches, and headache occur before intestinal symptoms begin. Diarrhea with or without blood and severe abdominal cramps are the major intestinal symptoms. The severity of symptoms is variable, ranging from only mild fever to dehydration and rarely death (mainly in the very young or old). The disease usually lasts about one week, but persists longer in about 20% of cases. At least 10% will have a relapse, and some patients will continue to pass the bacteria for several weeks.


Dehydration is the most common complication. Especially at the extremes of age, this should be watched for and treated with either Oral Rehydration Solution or intravenous fluid replacement.
Infection may also involve areas outside the intestine. This is unusual, except for infections with C. fetus. C. fetus infections tend to occur in those who have diseases of decreased immunity such as AIDS, cancer, etc. This subtype is particularly adapted to protect itself from the body's defenses.
Areas outside the intestine that may be involved are:
  • Nervous system involvement either by direct infection of the meninges (outer covering of the spinal and brain) or more commonly by producing the Guillain-Barré syndrome (progressive and reversible paralysis or weakness of many muscles). In fact, Campylobacter may be responsible for 40% of the reported cases of this syndrome.
  • Joint inflammation can occur weeks later (leading to an unusual form of arthritis).
  • Infection of vessels and heart valves is a special characteristic of C. fetus. Immunocompromised patients may develop repeated episodes of passage of bacteria into the bloodstream from these sites of infection.
  • The gallbladder, pancreas, and bone may be affected.


Campylobacter is only one of many causes of acute diarrhea. Culture (growing the bacteria in the laboratory) of freshly obtained diarrhea fluid is the only way to be certain of the diagnosis.


The first aim of treatment is to keep up nutrition and avoid dehydration. Medications used to treat diarrhea by decreasing intestinal motility, such as Loperamide or Diphenoxylate are also useful, but should only be used with the advice of a physician. Antibiotics are of value, if started within three days of onset of symptoms. They are indicated for those with severe or persistent symptoms. Either an erythromycin type drug or one of the fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) for five to seven days are the accepted therapies.


Most patients with Campylobacter infection rapidly recover without treatment. For certain groups of patients, infection becomes chronic and requires repeated courses of antibiotics.


Good hand washing technique as well as proper preparation and cooking of food is the best way to prevent infection.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1600 Clifton Rd., NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. (800) 311-3435, (404) 639-3311.


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Key terms

Antibiotic — A medication that is designed to kill or weaken bacteria.
Anti-motility medications — Medications such as loperamide (Imodium), dephenoxylate (Lomotil), or medications containing codeine or narcotics which decrease the ability of the intestine to contract. This can worsen the condition of a patient with dysentery or colitis.
Fluoroquinolones — A relatively new group of antibiotics that have had good success in treating infections with many Gram-negative bacteria. One drawback is that they should not be used in children under 17 years of age, because of possible effect on bone growth.
Food-borne illness — A disease that is transmitted by eating or handling contaminated food.
Gram-negative — Refers to the property of many bacteria that causes them to not take up color with Gram's stain, a method which is used to identify bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria which take up the stain turn purple, while Gram-negative bacteria which do not take up the stain turn red.
Guillain-Barré syndrome — Progressive and usually reversible paralysis or weakness of multiple muscles usually starting in the lower extremities and often ascending to the muscles involved in respiration. The syndrome is due to inflammation and loss of the myelin covering of the nerve fibers, often associated with an acute infection.
Meninges — Outer covering of the spinal cord and brain. Infection is called meningitis, which can lead to damage to the brain or spinal cord and even death.
Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) — A liquid preparation developed by the World Health Organization that can decrease fluid loss in persons with diarrhea. Originally developed to be prepared with materials available in the home, commercial preparations have recently come into use.
Stool — Passage of fecal material; a bowel movement.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


infection with organisms of the genus Campylobacter.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


Infection caused by microaerophilic bacteria of the genus Campylobacter.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


A gastrointestinal condition characterized by diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever, caused by eating unpasteurized dairy products or undercooked meat contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni, a bacterium that infects poultry, cattle, and sheep.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


Infection caused by microaerophilic bacteria of the genus Campylobacter.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
In the United States, most of the reported Campylobacter infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni (C.
Dr Brendan Mason, consultant in communicable disease control for Public Health Wales, said: "If you have consumed Penlan y Mor unpasteurised milk any time since June 1, including at the Royal Welsh Show on Wednesday, July 26, and you are experiencing symptoms of campylobacter infection, we want to hear from you.
Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Norwegian cats and dogs.
Burton, Little Rock Vaccine and methods to reduce campylobacter infection Billy Hargis, Fayetteville; Neil R.
Campylobacter infection is a serious cause of food poisoning and can be caught by washing chickens before cooking them.
jejuni in poultry because the consumption of poultry meat has been proven to be one of the main sources of Campylobacter infection in New Zealand as elsewhere (11,20) A recent publication and Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry report (2011) indicates prudent use of therapeutic antibiotics and a reduction in feed/water administration of antibiotics has been achieved in New Zealand and that levels of resistence in Gram negative bacteria, including Campylobacter isolated from chicken carcasses, are among the lowest reported in the world (19,21).
This may contribute to the range of symptoms of Campylobacter infection, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious complications, seen in different individuals.
Among the topics are the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of Shigella species, molecular aspects of pathogenesis and drug resistance in Salmonella species, epidemiology and genetics of the pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the biology of Campylobacter infection, and bacterial factors encoded by mobile and integrative genetic elements in enteric pathogens.
According to the Health Protection Agency, there have been 18 outbreaks of Campylobacter infection in England so far this year.
According to the Health Protection Agency (HPA), there have been 18 outbreaks of Campylobacter infection in England so far this year.
Reducing the levels of Campylobacter in the food chain, and ultimately the incidence of Campylobacter infection in humans, is an aim of U.K.-based scientists.

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