Distinguishing between vascular plant sterols and sterols derived from marine phytoplankton is a complex task because of the lack of resolution between the C-24 epimers of campesterol
, [beta]-sitosterol and stigmasterol with the analytical techniques used.
Lee et al., "Identification of campesterol
from Chrysanthemum coronarium L.
Beta-sitosterol, however, was determined to be much more effective than campesterol
in offering this protection in most parameters assessed.
, sitosterol, stigmasterol, desmosterol, lathosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, and butylated hydroxytoluene were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie.
m.] raw materials sterols age of plants rhizomes roots mean sitosterol 3-O- [beta]-D-glucoside (eleutheroside A) 2 years old 5.50 15.59 10.55 a 3 years old 45.71 81.24 63.48 b 4 years old 69.60 176.42 123.01 c mean 40.27 91.08 ** p-sitosterol 2 years old 31.11 38.16 34.64 a 3 years old 60.60 63.91 62.23 b 4 years old 77.18 81.20 79.19 c mean 56.30 61.09 campesterol
2 years old 10.48 28.89 19.69 b 3 years old 7.80 12.20 10.00 a 4 years old 6.18 8.33 7.26 a mean 8.25 16.47 ** brassicasterol 2 years old 3.32 4.19 3.76 3 years old 3.93 4.16 4.05 4 years old 3.87 7.72 5.80 mean 3.70 8.04 ** ** p<0.01
Cholesterol, brassicasterol, stigmasterol, campesterol
, and /3-sitosterol were used as reference standard.
Nergiz and Otles (1993) reported that the tocopherols in the NS seed oil were a-, AY- and - tocopherol, and their amounts were 40 g/g, 50 g/g and 250 g/g, respectively, while AY-sitosterol was the dominant sterol (69.4%), followed by stigmasterol (18.6%) and campesterol
Phytosterols include a wide variety of molecules that are structurally similar to cholesterol; the principal examples are AY-sitosterol campesterol
and stigmasterol [55 56].
Plant sterols including sitosterol, campesterol
, and stigmasterol are cholesterol-like molecules; the saturated analogues are suggested as effective cholesterol-lowering agents whilst those with ethylidene contain side chain that may behave as antioxidants [27,28].
In the in vitro studies, both beta-sitosterol and campesterol
inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells by 70% and 14%, respectively, while cholesterol supplementation increased the growth by 18% when compared with controls.
Other reported compounds include 3-glucosyl quercetin, betulic acid, bicycloelemene, brahmic acid, campesterol
, camphor, centellic acid, centellinic acid, centellose, centelloside, centoic acid, elaidic acid, germacrene-D, hydrocotyline, indocentoic acid, isobrahmic acid, isothankunic acid, lignoceric acid, medicassic acid, oxyasiaticoside, and vellarine (Duke, 1992).
Em relacao a concentracao de fitosterois, o suplemento Vegapure[R] 95FF apresentou 54% de fitosterois totais, sendo os fitosterois majoritarios [beta]-sitosterol, campesterol
e campestanol (47,3%, 28,3% e 13,4% do total de fitosterois, respectivamente).