With the pH value unchanged, initial phosphate concentration, stirring intensity, and amorphous ceramics dosage have been predicted as the major factors influencing the phosphate removal rate by calcium orthophosphate crystallization.
The phosphate recovery process is the calcium orthophosphate crystallization process on the surface of amorphous ceramics.
Dorozhkin, "Calcium orthophosphates
," Journal of Materials Science, vol.
Elliott, Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates
. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1994) pp.
After introducing the general concept of bone tissue engineering, they describe the structure of calcium orthophosphates
and isomorphous substitutions; present synthesis and sintering methods, including their own synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and their investigation of thermal stability of substituted phosphates; describe calcium phosphate based granules, ceramics, composites, and cements, along with their results on the technology of porous ceramics, polymer-impregnated composites, and other materials; and present the results of a microstructural investigation of scaffolds and ex vivo tissue engineered bones by three dimensional techniques such as X-ray computer microtomography in reference to the kinetics of bone growth and the properties of engineered bone.
Biphasic, triphasic and multiphasic calcium orthophosphates
. Acta Biomaterialia, 8(3): 963-77.
In 20 chapters, scientists working in chemistry, pharmaceutics, biotechnology, engineering, and other fields in Europe, North America, the Middle East, and Asia discuss the use of collagen, crystalline calcium orthophosphates
, amphiphilic polymers, polycaprolactone, biomimetic assembly, bio-nanocomposite matrices, bio-silica, theranostic nanobiomaterials, intelligent drug delivery systems, elastomeric nanobiomaterials, electrospun nanomatrices, metal nanoparticles, and biosensors.
However, a closer examination of the structures would reveal that all calcium orthophosphates
, listed here, can be included as distorted glaserite type structures, but with varying degrees of distortion.