calcineurin


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cal·ci·neu·rin

(kal'sē-nyūr'in),
A calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase involved in T-cell signaling transcription; the target of cyclosporine immunosuppression; the reaction cascade in which it resides is referred to as the calcineurin pathway.
[calcium + G. neuron, nerve, + -in]

calcineurin

An enzyme which binds Ca2+ and calmodulin, inhibiting calmodulin activity. Calcineurin alters proteins by removing phosphate groups, shortening duration of NMDA channel opening, resulting in synaptic desensitisation of NMDA receptors. Calcineurin activates T cells via transcription factor NFATc (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell, cytoplasmic) by dephosphorylation. Activated NFATc is translocated into the nucleus, where it upregulates IL-2 expression, and, by extension, the T cell response. Calcineurin is most concentrated in the CNS, and is inhibited by immunophilin ligand, tacrolimus and cyclosporin, both immunosuppressants. Because rejection can be mediated by calcineurin, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus) are used to prevent or manage rejection.

cal·ci·neu·rin

(kal'sē-nūr'in)
A calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase involved in T-cell signaling transcription; the reaction cascade in which it resides is referred to as the calcineurin pathway.
[calcium + G. neuron, nerve, + -in]
References in periodicals archive ?
The calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and tacrolimus have be linked with a reduced case of acute rejection, meanwhile, CNI amplifies BP and leads to acute allograft nephropathy.
CHICAGO -- Compared with that of calcineurin inhibitors, belatacept appears to be associated with a lower risk of keratinocyte carcinomas in solid organ transplant patients, based on results from a single-center analysis presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Investigative Dermatology.
Importantly recent preliminary transcriptional studies in our laboratory using laser capture microdissection of human biopsy material from the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have highlighted that recognised components of the TAK1 signalling pathway including the calcium dependent phosphatase calcineurin its regulatory partner regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) and downstream transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) are all highly associated with procollagen type I and III gene expression.
Different treatment methods are in hand with different efficacy such as phototherapy (particularly narrow-band UVB), topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and surgery.5 Treatment associated complications and recalcitrant lesions are among the most important limitations of the current used medication for vitiligo.
Additionally, there have been reports in the literature of the successful resolution of lesions using topical calcineurin inhibitors and UVB therapy.
There also was no significant effect of emollient bath additives on the secondary outcomes, which included POEM over 52 weeks, dermatitis family impact, generic quality of life, number of eczema exacerbations, or topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitor use.
This triggers downstream pathways, including calcineurin activation, NFAT dephoshorylation and translocation into the nucleus.
In the article titled "High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana" [1], there was an error in the units used in the dose of continuous infusion rate of tacrolimus.
Cyclosporine is a member of the class of drugs called calcineurin inhibitors (Sandimmun and Neoral are the commercial formulations of the drug), and the other commonly used drug in this class is tacrolimus (Prograft or Advagraft).
CYC or calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus) or rituximab are recommended as alternative options or for nonresponders.
Topical calcineurin inhibitors--pimecrolimus or tacrolimus--are effective as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, both as alternatives for flare management (especially in delicate skin areas) and in maintenance regimens.