CXCL13 drives spinal astrocyte activation and neuropathic pain via CXCR5
. J Clin Invest 2016; 126: 745-761, doi: 10.1172/JCI81950.
Tfh cells are considered to be a subset of CD[4.sup.+] T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues that express CXC-chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5
), which helps Tfh cells localize to B cell follicles.
Besides, BMSCs could affect chemotactic properties of B cells, because chemokine receptors (CCR) and CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR), such as CXCR4, CXCR5
, and CCR7, are decreased after B cell-BMSC coculture.
BLC is selectively chemotactic for B cells belonging to both the B-1 and B-2 subsets and elicits its effects by interacting with chemokine receptor CXCR5
. The role in the pathogenesis of PD was evaluated in recent studies .
(2,17) In the peripheral lymph nodes, LFA-1 on T cells is activated when HEV-associated chemokines including CCL21/ CCL19 and CXCL12 interact with their specific receptors on T cells, CCR7 and CXCR4, respectively, whereas LFA-1 on B cells is activated by interactions with CXCL13 via CXCR5
. Because these chemokine receptors are expressed preferentially on lymphocytes, only lymphocytes exhibit firm adhesion via activated LFA-1, which then binds to the immunoglobulin-like-domain-containing adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on the surface of HEV ECs.
Besides, we also reviewed more literatures and found the expression pattern of some genes was consistent in both peripheral blood and thymic tissues in MG patients, such as CXCL13 [4, 5], CXCR5
, CXCR3 , ESR1 , IL-6, and RANTES .
TFH cells are a subset of CD4-positive T-cells expressing BCL6, CD10, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), inducible T-cell costimulator, interleukin-21, and chemokine receptor CXCR5
. TFH cells primarily reside in germinal centers where they interact with activated B-cells to enable the production of high affinity isotype switched antibodies and maintain humoral memory .
Genetic polymorphisms of CXCR5
and CXCL13 are associated with non-responsiveness to the hepatitis B vaccine.