CXCR4

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CXCR4

A gene on chromosome 2q21 that encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the CXC chemokine receptor family, which binds specifically to stromal cell-derived factor-1, transducing a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions and enhancing MAPK1/MAPK3 activation. It acts as a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin, is involved in haematopoiesis and in cardiac ventricular septum formation, plays a role in gastrointestinal tract vascularisation by regulating vascular branching and/or remodelling in endothelial cells, may be involved in cerebellar development and, in the CNS, may mediate hippocampal-neuron survival.

Molecular pathology
CXCR4 acts with the CD4 to support HIV entry into cells; it is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. CXCR4 mutations cause WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
During the same period, we worked with clinical collaborators at Duke Cancer Institute to plan our next trial for GMI-1359, a dual antagonist of E-selectin and CXCR-4, and defined individuals with breast cancer and bone metastases as our initial target study population," said CEO Rachel King.
For the first time, this study proposed a deep learning method to automatically detect and segment the whole-body MM bone lesions on CXCR-4 PET/CT imaging.
An ischemic insult to the cortex can markedly increase the expression of SDF-1 in the ischemic region, which is a chemoattractant for directional migration of neuroblasts expressing CXCR-4.[sup][158] Hypoxia can induce migration in various types of cells, including BMSCs, cardiac SCA-1+ progenitors, ESCs/iPSCs, NSCs, and many tumor cells.[sup][159],[160],[161],[162],[163] The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and hypoxia are mediators for BMSC/EPC migration in the bone marrow, the peripheral blood, and many other organs.[sup][83],[164],[165] Upon hypoxic stimuli, IL-8 is upregulated and activated in acute myeloid leukemia immune cells, which show greater migration out of the stem cell niche.[sup][166]
PPAR[gamma] has positive effects on breast cell cancer: it downregulates the expression of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) gene, which is crucial in the growth and progression of cancer, as well as in the development of metastasis.
Resumen de las moleculas implicadas en la migracion y transicion epitelio-mesenquima de las celulas de la cresta neural y las celulas tumorales Polaridad Scribble, Crb3, PATJ, aPKC, Par3 Adhesion Cadherina-E, cadherina-N, cadherina-6, cadherina-11, ocludina, ZO-1 GTP-asas Rho RhoB, Rac, RhoU MEC, proteasas integrinas Laminina, colageno IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, ADAM-10, integrina-[beta]1 Polaridad celular planar Fzd7, Dvl1 Senalizacion Wnt, BMP, TGF-[beta], Notch Transcripcion Snail/Slug, Twist, Sox Ligando-receptores Efrinas, semaforinas, CXCL12, CXCR-4 Tabla 2.
Various pharmacological activities associated with curcumin are believed to be due to its interference with diverse cell signaling pathways including cell cycle (cyclin-Dl and cyclin-E), apoptosis (activation of caspases and down-regulation of antiapoptotic gene products), proliferation (HER-2, EGFR, and AP-1), survival (P13K/Akt pathway), invasion (MMP-9 and adhesion molecules), angiogenesis (VEGF), metastasis (CXCR-4) and inflammation (NFkB, TNF, IL-6, 1L-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX).
It revealed that the most overexpressed genes at 12 hours of treatment were chemokines CXCL1 (GRO[alpha]), IL8, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4), and other genes implicated in the immune response, such as pentraxin 3 (PTX3), IL6, and TNF[alpha]-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6), or metaloproteinases (MMP1, MMP10, and MMP14).
A key chemokine implicated in the quiescence of these cells within the bone marrow is stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which acts via its major receptor CXCR-4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4).
The alpha-chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha, binds to the transmembrane G-protein-coupled CXCR-4 receptor and activates multiple signal transduction pathways.
The C-C chemokines RANTES, MIP-1[alpha] and MIP-1[beta] are shown to be the natural ligands for CCR-5 and CXCR-4 receptors.
However, certain persons with mutated CCR-5 can become HIV-infected (10); in such cases other chemokine receptors (e.g., CXCR-4, CCR-2, and CCR-3) are believed to facilitate infection.