In vitro studies revealed that IL-6 transsignaling increases chemokine activation of CXCL5, CXCL6
, and CCL8 .
Lopez et al., "CXCL6
is an important paracrine factor in the pro-angiogenic human cardiac progenitor-like cell secretome," Scientific Reports, vol.
Interleukins [interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 6 signal transducer (IL6ST), interleukin 7 (IL7), interleukin 15 (IL15), and interleukin 1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1)] and chemokines [C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 (CXCL6
), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CXCL11), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 28 (CCL28)] also were overexpressed in HT-29 cells.
Moreover, overexpression of VEGFR-3 and chemokine receptors, such as CXCR2 (receptor of IL-8) and CXCR6 (receptor of CXCL6
), has been found in endothelial cells and dermal fibroblasts isolated from SSc patients [44, 50, 51].
metabolism (B3GALT6, BHMT2, KMO, LIPC, MDH1B, NPL, SMC3), cytoskeleton (SHROOM4, DNASE1, TBCD), signal transduction (ADRBK2, ARF1, CLSTN2, DLGAP2, GPRC5C, GUK1, PTAR1, RABGGTB, WNT10A, ZNF544), transcriptional regulation (HAT1, JMJD5, PCGF6, ZNF599), RNA processing (DDX1, MRPS9, RPL31, SNRNP200,), protein turnover (HSPA9, PSMG4, PSKH1, RNF181, RNGTT, WDR20), as well as other or unknown functions (ABI3BP, C12orf42, CXCL6
, DNASE1, LOC401098, LOC729059, LOC727973, PCDHG, REEP2, TF, SAA1, SAA4, SMPD4, STARD7, TSN, VCAM1).
Name References Cytokines TNF-[alpha] (+) [69-71] IL-1 (+) [72-74] IL-6  IL-8 (CXCL18) [75, 76] IL-15  IL-17  IL-18 (+) [79-82] Chemokines CXCL1 [83, 84] CXCL2 [83, 84] CXCL3 [83-86] CXCL5 [83, 84] CXCL6
[83, 84] CXCL7 [83, 84] CXCL9  CXCL12 (SDF-1) [87, 88] CCL2 (MCP-1) [89, 90] (+) Also antiangiogenic activity has been reported.
In contrast, PGJ2 enhanced markedly the expression of both interleukin 8 (IL8) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6
) and had no effect on other cytokines .
Genes P value COL4A1 3.17E-08 PCDH17 7.47E-08 PECAM1 2.07E-07 IGFBP5 2.73E-07 CAV1 2.75E-07 KCNJ8 3.49E-07 PIK3R3 3.53E-07 LCN2 3.77E-07 COL6A3 4.13E-07 COL4A2 4.78E-07 HEG1 5.51E-07 CD93 6.32E-07 ADAM9 6.36E-07 RIPK2 9.92E-07 AMN 1.11E-06 ACVR1 1.11E-06 CALU 1.17E-06 CXCL6
1.32E-06 TMEM158 1.63E-06 TIMP3 1.70E-06 Table 2.
Based on gene expression direction of 14 genes, namely CCR2, CXCL6
, DACT2, ELF5, ENAH, ESR1, FLT1, LIN28B, NCAM1, NOX4, SERPINA1, TLE1, TLR7, XRCC5, it can be concluded that Rhodiola may have beneficial effect in cancer, that is in line with growing body of evidence about antitumor activity of Rhodiola and salidroside [Cai et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2012; Bocharova et al., 1995; Dement'eva and laremenko, 1987].
The HIV-upregulated cytokines/chemokines in the RTECs include inflammatory cytokines CCL20, IL-6-, and the IL-8 related chemokines: CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6
, and CXCL8 (IL-8).
Gene specific human Taqman[R] primers MMP1 (Hs00899659_m1), MMP13 (Hs00233992_ml), CCL2 (Hs00234140_m1) CCL8 (Hs04187715_m1), CXCL6
(Hs00605742_m1), C3 (Hs00163811_ml), CH25H (Hs02379634_s1), and LBP (Hs01084621_ml) (Applied Biosystems) were used for gene expression analysis.
Angiogenic chemokines, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6
, and CXCL8, are generally distinguished by an ELR motif.