are filled with the CW agent
at a central facility, while binary
(22) CWs are designed to have a high boiling point so that an exploding shell does not destroy the chemical agent, although there are complex processes required when using a binary CW agent
. Some binary agents need to be mixed in advance of being loaded into a delivery system, such as a shell, while others are self-mixing where the detonation of the shell automatically mixes the precursors stored within it.
The Islamic State's choice to employ CW agents
, as it did, suggests that a link between the group's operational calculus and its strategic objectives may have had some initial traction in its leaders' minds.
Hundreds of tons of CW agents
have been stockpiled.
As ajoint effort BPSI and MKS Instruments has launched an ambient air analyser, the MKS AIRGARD, an ultrasensitive gas analyser based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy process to detect rapidly CW agents
and other toxic gases (please see the 'How It Works' box for more information on this process).
As late as 2011, the director of national intelligence gave a strikingly similar, updated statement to Congress, stating that "Syria continued to seek dual-use technology from foreign sources" and "has a stockpile of CW agents
, which can be delivered by aerial bombs, ballistic missiles, and artillery rockets." (The country remained dependent on foreign precursor chemicals.)
At present, it seems unlikely that CW will be used again in large-scale warfare, but it is reasonably believed that rogue organizations and some non-signatory countries are working on the development of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including CW agents
. Such weapons may yet be used in regional conflicts or against population segments to suppress popular revolts, as was the case in 1988 when Saddam Hussein's government ordered the release of an unidentified mixture of chemical agents over the Iraqi Kurdish village of Halabja, killing between several hundred and 5,000 of the town's 50,000 residents.
The correct title for this piece of equipment is a Hand-Held Explosives, CW Agents
, Toxic Industrial Chemicals or Narcotics Trace Detection Scanner.
DOD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents
, based on DOD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported.
Finally, we believe that North Korea has a sizeable stockpile of chemical weapons, and can manufacture all manner of CW agents
Unscom had found documents that verified that "spray/drop tanks for the dissemination of CW agents
had been successfully tested with mustard agent and that the necessary stocks of bulk CW agents
had been reserved for their filling", leading Unmovic to list the programme as an "unresolved disarmament issue".
It states Iran as having a stockpile of "several thousand tons of CW agents
" including sulphur mustard, phosgene and cyanide gases, and adds that Tehran "is capable of producing an additional 1,000 tons of these agents each year".