EPHA2

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Also found in: Acronyms.

EPHA2

A gene on chromosome 1q36 that encodes a member of the ephrin-A receptor subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, which promiscuously bind membrane-bound ephrin-A family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signalling into neighbouring cells. Once activated by the ligand ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), it regulates cell adhesion and differentiation through DSG1/desmoglein-1 and inhibition of the ERK1/ERK2 (MAPK3/MAPK1, respectively) signalling pathway. It may participate in UV radiation-induced apoptosis and have a ligand-independent stimulatory effect on chemotactic cell migration.

During development, EPHA2 may function in distinctive aspects of pattern formation and development of several foetal tissues, such as angiogenesis, early hindbrain development and epithelial proliferation, and branching morphogenesis during mammary gland development. It is thought to regulate lens fibre cells’ shape and interactions and to be important for lens transparency development and maintenance. With ephrin-A2 (EFNA2), it may play a role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis.

EPHA2 interacts with ACP1, ANKS1A, ARHGEF16, CLDN4, DOCK4, ELMO2, INPPL1, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PIK3R3, PTK2/FAK1, PTPN11, SLA, VAV2, and VAV3. 

Molecular pathology
Defects in EPHA2 cause cataract cortical age-related type 2 (age-related cataract cortical type 2) and cataract posterior polar type 1 (posterior polar cataracts type 2).
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References in periodicals archive ?
(6) A fixed cutoff D-dimer concentration of 500 ng/mL is commonly used despite an absolute reduction of 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5-12.9) in the need for CTPA using an age-adjusted D-dimer concentration threshold (age x 10 ng/mL for patients > 50 years).
The purpose of our study was to determine if the image quality and vascular enhancement are preserved in CTPA studies performed with ultra-low contrast and optimized radiation dose using high-pitch helical mode of a second generation dual source scanner.
Pulmonary cement embolisms are a frequent complication of vertebral cement placement procedures; diagnosis is made by CTPA. Both radiologists and other physicians should consider this entity in all patients with cardiopulmonary symptoms and a previous history of arthrodesis.
The researchers found that PE was diagnosed in 28 women (7.1 percent; proximal deep venous thrombosis found on ultrasound, positive CTPA, and high probability ventilation/perfusion [V/Q] scan) and was excluded in 367 women (clinical probability and negative D-dimer result, negative CTPA result, normal or low-probability V/Q scan, and other reasons).
Of the total 1681 patients, 1470 (87.45%) met the criteria for acute PE; 1382 (94.01%) of these patients were diagnosed by CTPA, 83 (5.65%) were diagnosed with high probability by V/Q scan, and 5 (0.34%) were diagnosed by echocardiography.
CTPA is available round the clock and has potential advantage of providing an alternative diagnosis in those who are not having PE2.
The radiation dose delivered to breast tissue in CTPA has been shown to be many times higher than V/Q on average and though the radiation dose delivered to the uterus is slightly higher in V/Q than in CTPA, both have been shown to be very small and likely less significant in comparison to the breast dose [4].
With the history of haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) was performed, and it did not show pulmonary embolism (PE).
She had a normal computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) with no evidence of pulmonary embolism.
The possibility of a pulmonary embolus was investigated via CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA).
The patient remained haemodynamically stable and was sent to the radiology department for a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) after completion of the alteplase infusion.
Demographic data and baseline characteristics of participants (N=99) Age (years), median (IQR) 46 (38-57) Sex, n (%) Male 35 (35.4) Female 64 (64.6) Race,* n (%) Black 79 (79.8) White 13 (13.1) Coloured 4 (4.0) Indian 3 (3.0) Thrombosis investigation, n (%) Duplex doppler confirmation 99 (100) CTPA 5 (5.1) Ventilation/perfusion scan 1 (1.0) HIV ([dagger]) diagnosis and treatment, n (%) Positive 44/83 (53.0) Negative 39/83 (47.0) On treatment 34/44 (77.3) Not on treatment ([double dagger]) 10/44 (22.7) TB ([section]) diagnosis and treatment, n (%) 21 (21.2) On active treatment 17/21 (81.0) Not on treatment 4/21 (19.0) CTPA = computed tomography pulmonary angiogram; TB = tuberculosis.