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In this method, proteins such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 can be tagged with labels that emit fluorescent signals as they move single-file through transparent tubes past laser beams, allowing scientists to precisely count and sort cells according to their characteristics.
Together, the results provide evidence that these autoimmune diseases are caused in part by one form of CTLA-4, Wicker and her colleagues conclude.
CTLA-4 49A conferred an increased risk of AIP compared with healthy individuals (OR 3.
Blockade of the negative co-stimulatory molecules PD-1 and CTLA-4 improves survival in primary and secondary fungal sepsis.
24) Another prospect is that the low levels of CD80 and CD86 on these cells explain why CTLA-4 itself is not properly engaged to inhibit T cell signaling and functions.
Preclinical models have suggested that combining PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade could alter antitumor activity greater than either strategy alone.
When they created mice lacking CTLA-4, their T cells ended up attacking their own bodies after an infection.
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Although cardiotoxicity has been reported in mouse models for deficiency of PD-1 (3, 14) and CTLA-4 (15), cardiotoxicity remains a rare side effect in humans treated with either anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 therapy.
1), CD28, RGMb (repulsive guidance molecule family member b), and CTLA-4 (cyto-toxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) are only some of the players.
After struggling for years to make immunotherapies stick, researchers sparked a renaissance in cancer treatment with so-called checkpoint inhibitors that target the T-cell co-inhibitory receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1.
Induction of the CTLA-4 gene in human lymphocytes is dependent on NFAT binding the proximal promoter.
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