However, EBV is associated with epigenetic changes of apoptosis (DAPK, BNIP3, FAM3B HRK, IL15RA, MINT31, p16, p73, PTEN, and RASSF1A), cell cycle regulation (APC, p15, p16, p57, and p73), cell proliferation (E-Cadherin, HRASLS, IL15RA, MINT31, NKX3.1, RUNX3, TIMP2, and TIMP3), cell signalling (14-3-3 Sigma, CSPG2
, MINT1, MINT2, and PLXND1), cell adhesion (EPHB6, FLNC, FSD, REC8, and CSPG2
), migration (EPHB6), interaction (MDGA2, THBS1), DNA repair (HMLH1, MGMT), and many other epigenetic changes (BCL7A, BLU, CHFR, CXXC4, GSTP1, HLTF, HOXA10, IHH, MARK1, MINT25, PAX5-[beta],SCARF2, SSTR1, THBD, and WNT5A) [17, 40,190,191,194, 204-211].
revealed that panel of hypermethylated genes, for example, DCC, CSPG2
, and NAT2, was specific to HBV-related HCC [26, 27] and methylation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) suppresses CYP2C19 in HBV-associated HCC patients .
Wagner syndrome may further be differentiated from Snowflake degeneration by its alternative genetic mutation (in CSPG2
), more pronounced chorioretinal atrophy, nyctalopia, pseudoexotropia from the congenital temporal displacement of the fovea, and poorer end visual outcome.
An earlier study (193) had reported that 4 genes that are affected by age-related methylation, ER, MYOD, CDKN2A exon 1, and CSPG2
, are highly methylated in dysplastic colonic epithelium and that hypermethylation of 3 of these genes also occurred in the nondysplastic epithelium of patients with UC who had dysplasia or CRC elsewhere in their colon.