CPR


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cardiopulmonary

 [kahr″de-o-pul´mo-nar″e]
pertaining to the heart and lungs.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) the manual application of chest compressions and ventilations to patients in cardiac arrest, done in an effort to maintain viability until advanced help arrives. This procedure is an essential component of basic life support (BLS), basic cardiac life support (BCLS), and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS).

The preliminary steps of CPR, as defined by the American Heart Association, are (1) calling for help; (2) establishing unresponsiveness in the victim by tapping or gently shaking and shouting at him or her; (3) positioning the victim in a supine position on a hard surface; (4) giving two breaths; and (5) checking the pulse. These are begun as quickly as possible; prompt action is essential for successful outcome. At the moment breathing and heart action stop, “clinical death” ensues. Within four to six minutes the cells of the brain, which are the most sensitive to lack of oxygen, begin to deteriorate. If breathing and circulation are not restored within this period of time, irreversible brain damage occurs and “biological death” takes place.

Although CPR is strongly recommended as a life-saving measure, it is not without danger; specific risks include rib fracture, damage to the liver or heart, and puncture of lungs or large blood vessels. All health care providers should receive instruction and practice in CPR under the direction of a qualified instructor. The public in general should also be encouraged to learn CPR for use in emergency situations.

Once it has been established that a person is in need of CPR, the rescuer immediately begins the “ABC's” of CPR: Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. Opening the airway and determining by look, sound, and feel is the first step for determining whether the person will be able to resume unassisted breathing. This is accomplished by lifting the chin up and back and bringing the mandible forward. If there is no evidence of spontaneous breathing, the rescuer corrects obstruction of the airway by a foreign body, when this is indicated. This is done by one or more of the following methods: back blows, manual chest thrusts, and finger sweeps. Once the airway is open, rescue breathing is started by means of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (see artificial respiration).

The third element of CPR is circulation, which begins by establishing the presence or absence of a pulse. If there is no pulse, compression of the chest is begun. This consists of rhythmic applications of pressure on the lower half of the sternum (NOT on the xiphoid process, which may injure the liver). For a normal-sized adult, sufficient force is used to depress the sternum about 4 to 5 cm (1½ to 2 in). This raises intrathoracic pressure and produces the output of blood from the heart. When the pressure is released, blood is allowed to flow into the heart. Compressions should be maintained for one-half second; the same length of time is allowed for the relaxation period.

Chest compression is always accompanied by rescue breathing. The two must be coordinated so that there is regular and uninterrupted circulation of blood and aeration of the lungs.

CPR is a psychomotor skill and all health care providers should keep their certification current in order to be proficient in this procedure in case of emergency. The techniques of CPR provide basic life support (BLS) in all cases of respiratory and cardiac arrest. Standards and guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiac care (ECC), including BCLS and ACLS, have been developed cooperatively by the American Heart Association and the National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council. Reprints of these standards can be obtained from local chapters of the American Heart Association or from the American Heart Association, Distribution Department, 7272 Greenville Ave., Dallas, TX 75231-4596, telephone (800) 553–6321.
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Airway: One hand is placed under the neck to extend it. With the other hand the chin is lifted so that it points upward. Sometimes this maneuver clears the airway and is all that is necessary to reinstate spontaneous breathing. Breathing: The nostrils are pinched and the chin held in position so that the rescuer's mouth can make a tight seal over the victim's mouth. Circulation: Compression of the chest with a downward thrust is alternated with breathing. If one person is performing CPR, he or she first blows into the victim's lungs, applies pressure to the sternum 15 times, and then continues a cycle of 2 breaths to 15 compressions.

resuscitation

 [re-sus″ĭ-ta´shun]
1. restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead, or whose respirations had ceased; see also artificial respiration.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to sustain life.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation see cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
resuscitation: fetus in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to improve placental perfusion or correct fetal acid-base status.
fluid resuscitation
1. the correction of fluid volume imbalances, especially in patients with burn injuries.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering prescribed intravenous fluids rapidly.
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation a method of artificial respiration in which the rescuer covers the patient's mouth with his own and exhales vigorously, inflating the patient's lungs.
resuscitation: neonate in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to support adaptation of the neonate to extrauterine life.

CPR

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

CPR

abbr.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPR

CPR

Abbreviation for:
C-peptide reactivity
Capital Payments & Receipts return (Medspeak-UK)
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Medspeak-UK)
cerebral perfusion reserve
Child Protection Register (Medspeak-UK)
Coalition for Patient Rights
complete pathologic response
computerised patient record
contraceptive prevalence rate
cumulative pregnancy rate

CPR

Emergency medicine Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Those activities–artificial breathing and external chest compression intended to maintain the heart pump, performed on a person to revive him/her from apparent death, when the heart and/or lungs are not functioning. See ABC sequence, CAB sequence, Cough CPR.

CPR

Abbreviation for cardiopulmonary resuscitation; computer-based patient record.

CPR

Abbrev. for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Using rescue breathing and chest compressions to help a person whose breathing and heartbeat have stopped

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

; CPR maintenance of circulation of oxygenated blood to the brain during cardiac arrest, by closed chest massage ± assisted respiration (see basic life support; external chest message)

CPR,

CPR

see cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
References in periodicals archive ?
If they respond, even if it makes no sense or it is just a murmur, you must not start CPR as this means they are still breathing themselves.
He did not have a DNR order or an advance directive indicating that he did not want CPR.
The proportion of bystander compression-only CPR attempts rose dramatically, from approximately 20% in 2005 to 76% at the end of 2009, the investigators said.
Bystanders are often reluctant to perform CPR out of fear of disease transmission, fear of legal liability, or as a result of the complexity of guidelines and instructional materials (which hampers both learning and delivery of bystander CPR).
Since patients had to have a PCC assigned on admission (with full support, including CPR as the default), failure to discuss and assign a PCC was an event that was reviewed by the hospital's quality care committee.
But a national 4,000-person survey showed that a much higher percentage of the public would be interested in providing bystander CPR if the procedure involved chest compression-only CPR.
Results of a seven-year study comparing the effects of chest compression only versus standard CPR (including mouth-to-mouth) found that survival results were not significantly different whether mouth-to-mouth was given or not.
Findings from all studies to date indicate that the prompt delivery of CPR to an infant or child results in lower mortality and fewer neurological complications (Friesen, Duncan, Tweed, & Bristow, 1982; Innes et al.
The daughter started screaming: "Doesn't anybody here know CPR [cardiopulmonary resuscitation]?
Just 40 percent of CPR patients survive their crisis.
Thus, depending on one's point of view, the CPR glass is either half empty or half full.
CPR courses teach people to recognize the signs and symptoms of a heart attack, to ease the victim's distress and initiate the emergency response by calling 911 immediately, and to begin CPR if the victim's breathing and heartbeat stop.