COX-2 inhibitor

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COX-2 inhibitor

A drug class that relieves inflammation and pain by inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase-2.

Prostanoids that mediate inflammation, pain, and fever are synthesized through the action of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that is constitutively expressed in the brain but can be induced in other tissues by cytokines. In both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to be superior in pain relief to acetaminophen and placebo, and equivalent to nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen. In rheumatoid arthritis, COX-2 inhibitors are not disease-modifying drugs. Because nonselective NSAIDs inhibit not only COX-2 but also inhibit COX-1, which plays a role in platelet aggregation and gastric mucosal protection, their use is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding than that of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Like NSAIDs, however, the selective agents can cause liver and kidney toxicity, fluid retention, and hypertension. One of them (rofecoxib) was withdrawn by the manufacturer after 5 years on the market because of an unacceptably high incidence of heart attack and thrombotic stroke in patients receiving it for 18 months or more. For these reasons and because they are more expensive than NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors are indicated chiefly in patients who are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

COX-2 inhibitor

n.
Any of a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that selectively block prostaglandin formation so as to cause minimal gastrointestinal side effects.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

COX-2 inhibitor

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Pain management A class of analgesics with fewer side effects than those of conventional NSAIDs–which inhibit both cyclooxygenases–COX-1 and COX-2; COX-1 protects the gastric mucosa, preventing ulcers, bleeding, and other digestive tract problems. See COX-2, Prostaglandin.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

COX-2 in·hib·i·tor

(in-hibi-tŏr)
A drug class that relieves inflammation and pain by inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase-2.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Similarly, TGF-[beta]1 protein secretion did not decrease significantly following COX-2 inhibition (Figure 8(b)).
COX-2 inhibition has been shown to reduce invasiveness and depress metastases of gastric cancer in various animal models [67].
It was therefore not surprising to observe in our pharmacogenomic studies that COX-2 inhibition, by altering the profile of eicosanoids spontaneously generated by diseased OA cartilage, resulted in profound effects on the transcription of multiple genes that could alter cartilage homeostasis.
(44) Although studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk with COX-2 inhibitors, (45-48) nonselective NSAIDs with high COX-2 inhibition (e.g., diclofenac) seem to have higher cardiovascular risk, whereas nonselective NSAIDs with high COX-1 inhibition (e.g., naproxen, aspirin, ibuprofen) seem to have higher gastrointestinal risk.
(20) Recently released follow-up data from the APPROVe trial further establishes that Cox-2 inhibition contributes to atherosclerotic progression and atherogenesis, and that the hazard continues even after the drug is discontinued.
(11) also reported that selective COX-2 inhibition can improve endothelial function and decrease inflammation in severe coronary artery disease.
Although experiments indicate that Cox-2 inhibition suppresses the development of benign growths, such as polyps, solid data showing that these drugs prevent cancer in people are still lacking, Ristimiiki says.
COX-2 inhibition could prove to be one of the most important preventive medical accomplishments of the new century.
With the property of selective cox-2 inhibition, new NSAIDs have less side effects than older NSAIDs.
Still, he believes there is room for a drug with less specific COX-2 inhibition, since not everybody responds to or tolerates Celebrex and Vioxx, added Dr.
With the introduction of newer NANSAIDs with predominant COX-2 inhibition and the ability to target the action required according to COX-1/COX-2 selectivity, the balance of risks to benefit and outcome appears to be shifting.
Gokce et al., "Short- and long-term COX-2 inhibition reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension," Hypertension, vol.