Further, net radiometers are mounted at 40 m (Kipp & Zonen CNR4
), 12 m, and 35 m (Kipp & Zonen NR-Lite).
With the exception of the highest category level (CNR4), the CNR treatments resulted in significantly higher average donations than those accrued under the NR treatment.
The only exception to this was CNR4, where the category threshold level was set the highest.
Micrometeorological measurements at the site included 2 m air temperature and relative humidity (Vaisala HMP45C), solar irradiance and reflected shortwave radiation (300-2800 nm), and incoming and emitted longwave radiation (4500-42 000 nm) (Kipp and Zonen CNR4
net radiometer, including an integrated ventilation unit).
(China) WSR WSR-88D (United States) (E), CINRAD WSR-98D (China) (W) DWSR-200IX-SDPIM (United States) POS/RS NSMC FY-3A, FY-3B (China), sensor: VIRR, IRAS, MWTS, MWHS, MERSI, MWRI, TOU, SBUS, SIM, ERM VP/RS TP/WVP: microwave radiometer 3000, Radiometrics (United States) GPS-Met 19 Trimble NetRs (United States), 12 Ashtech Z-12 (United States) IT/Flux Irgason Campbell Scientific (United States), CNR4
Kipp and Zonen (Netherlands), HMPI55A Vaisala (Finland), ZQZ_TF Jiangsu Radio Scientific Institute (China) so/o3 EC9810, Ecotech Inc.
Solar radiation components were measured at 20 m above the ground by a 4-Component Net Radiation Sensor (CNR4
, Kipp & Zonen, Delft, NL).
Common to these sites are an EC system consisting of a sonic anemometer/thermometer (model CSAT3, Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, Utah) and an open-path [H.sub.2]O/C[O.sub.2] analyzer (Table 2), a four-way net radiometer (model CNR4
, Kipp & Zonen B.
Variable Device/manufacturer Measurement height [m] Atmospheric C[O.sub.2] Licor 7500A open path infrared 2.65 and [H.sub.2]O gas analyser, LI-COR Biosciences, USA Wind speed in 3- CSAT3 ultrasonic anemometer, 2.65 dimensional field (w, Campbell Scientific, USA v, and w) and air temperature Incoming and outgoing CNR4
net radiometer (pair of 2.00 shortwave and longwave pyranometer and pyrgeometer), radiations Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands Soil moisture content CS616, water content 0.03 reflectometer, Campbell Scientific, USA Soil heat flux HFP01SC, self-calibrating heat 0.08 flux plate, Hukseflux, Netherlands Soil temperature TCAV averaging soil 0.03 thermocouple probe, Campbell Scientific, USA Table 2: General parameters used for the SOLVEG simulations.
South of the tower, a 4-component net radiation sensor (CNR4
, Kipp & Zonen) was installed at a height of 1.5 m for radiation observations.
Observational item Instrument type Manufacturer Wind CSAT3 Campbell/USA Vapor/C[O.sub.2] Li-75 00 (2009) LI-COR/USA EC150 (2012) Campbell/USA Air temperature/humidity HMP45C (2009) Vaisala/Finland HMP155 (2012) Radiation CNR1 (2009) Kipp & Zonen/Holland CNR4
(2012) Soil heat flux HFP01 Hukseflux/Holland Soil temperature/humidity 109L/CS616 Campbell/USA Observational item Sensor height (m) Wind 3.0 Vapor/C[O.sub.2] 3.0 Air temperature/humidity 3.0 Radiation 1.5 Soil heat flux -0.05 -0.20 -0.05 Soil temperature/humidity -0.10 -0.20 -0.40
Here, [[epsilon].sub.i] is the emissivity of fabric i, [L.sub.i] is the earth radiant energy of fabric i measured by the CNR4 netradiometer, [[epsilon].sub.0.95] is the set emissivity of the thermal infrared thermometer (0.95), [T.sub.si] is the surface temperature of the fabric i using a thermal infrared thermometer, and a is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.67 x [10.sup.-8] W [m.sup.-2] [K.sup.-4]).
Radiant energy was measured using a CNR4 netradiometer (Kipp and Zonen Inc.) by holding it horizontally approximately 10 cm away from the surface for a minute to two.