cytomegalovirus retinitis

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Related to CMV retinitis: Acute Retinal Necrosis

retinitis

 [ret″ĭ-ni´tis]
inflammation of the retina.
retinitis circina´ta (circinate retinitis) circinate retinopathy.
cytomegalovirus retinitis opportunistic infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus, seen in immunocompromised patients; symptoms include retinal necrosis and hemorrhage, leading to blindness.
exudative retinitis exudative retinopathy.
retinitis pigmento´sa a group of diseases, frequently hereditary, marked by progressive loss of retinal response (as recorded by the electroretinograph), retinal atrophy, attenuation of retinal vessels, and clumping of the pigment, with contraction of the field of vision. It may be transmitted as a dominant, recessive, or X-linked trait and is sometimes associated with other genetic defects. It may become manifest at the age of two or three years, or it may follow a slow course over a period of years. There is no successful treatment or cure for the condition. Early diagnosis allows the patient to prepare for the eventual loss of vision.
retinitis proli´ferans a condition that may result from intraocular hemorrhage, with neovascularization and the formation of fibrous bands extending into the vitreous from the retina; retinal detachment may result.
suppurative retinitis retinitis due to pyemic infection.

cytomegalovirus retinitis

Ophthalmology CMV infection of the eye, a common opportunistic infection in AIDS, a complication of disseminated CMV infection Clinical Retinal inflammation, blindness Management Antivirals–eg, foscarnet, cidofovir, gancyclovir, systemically and as a ganciclovir implant Prognosis Without treatment, retinal necrosis, vision loss

cytomegalovirus retinitis

Abbreviation: CMV retinitis
The most common eye infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This opportunistic infection is responsible for visual impairment and blindness if left untreated.
See also: retinitis

retinitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis) 

A rare, chronic, diffuse infection of the retina caused by the cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesvirus group. It affects people with an impaired immune system as a result of either AIDS, organ transplantation or chemotherapy for some malignancies such as leukaemia. The signs are whitish retinal lesions, which look granular (not fluffy, cotton-wool spots). These lesions progress into retinal necrosis with absolute visual field loss in that area. The lesions are usually accompanied by haemorrhages. Eventually the lesions coalesce and involve the entire fundus, resulting in complete visual loss. In the initial phase of the disease most patients are usually asymptomatic while those with symptoms will complain of floaters, blurred vision, photopsia, scotomas, metamorphopsia, etc. In some cases, retinal detachment follows the disease. Treatment with dihydroxy propoxymethyl guanine and ganciclovir produces some regression of the disease. See acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, not everyone with AIDS and CMV retinitis should take foscarnet, Jabs warns.
In present study, CMV retinitis was seen in only 1% of patients, all of them had CD4 count below 50cells/[micro]l with a mean CD4 count of 40cells/[micro]l.
Currently, there is consensus regarding withholding ganciclovir in severely neutropenic patients, but ganciclovir still is the drug of choice in management of CMV infections including CMV retinitis [20].
CMV retinitis can occur in patients with impaired T- cell response such as in solid organ transplant, bone marrow transplant, PIDD, AIDS, or those on immunosuppressive therapy [6].
In this report, we highlight the three patients in this cohort who developed CMV retinitis.
Presumed CMV retinitis was diagnosed on the characteristic clinical appearance on ophthalmoscopy.
CMV retinitis and other posterior segment manifestations were seen only in patients with <50 cells/uL.
Mean viral load copies differed significantly between participants who manifested various ocular disorders (F = 362.7, p < 0.001) where CMV retinitis was associated with the highest viral load copies.
[1,2] CMV retinitis is the most common manifestation of end-organ CMV disease among patients with AIDS.
The mean CD4-count of patients with posterior segment lesions like CMV retinitis (93.8 cells/[mm.sup.3]), retinal detachment (74.7 cells/[mm.sup.3]), tuberculous chorioretinitis (96 cells/[mm.sup.3]), and ARN (64 cells/[mm.sup.3]) was less than 100 cells/[mm.sup.3].
Cidofovir is approved in the United States for CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [8].
CMV retinitis was bilateral in 36 cases (49%), NHR was bilateral in 6 cases (35%), and OT was bilateral in 2 cases (13%).