The overall EBRD transition indicator is computed for the three Baltic states separately and for the averages of five Central European countries as CE5 (Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia); four CIS countries as CIS4 (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova); and eight countries in southeast Europe as Balkan8 (Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania).
This is particularly true of the CIS4 and the Balkan8 countries, but even the CE5 countries were slower, though most of them began the reform process earlier and from a more reformed outset.
The sample data is representative of manufacturing and services across these 8 countries in accordance with the methodology used in the CIS4
Innovation and productivity: A firm-level analysis for French manufacturing and services using CIS3 and CIS4
data (1998-2000 and 2002-2004)", presentado en la conferencia DRUID, Copenhague, junio de 2008.
This paper aims to identify and analyze contributions made by the seven innovation activities of CIS4
(Community Innovation Survey), considering the four different innovation typologies: product, process, organizational and marketing in a small open economy (Portugal).
Robin (2010) Innovation and Productivity: A Firm-Level Analysis for French Manufacturing and Services Using CIS3 and CIS4
Data (1998-2000 and 2002-2004).
Using the fourth version of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS4
) as a base, the author (a) measured the existence of innovation activity in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk CBSA as measured by the CIS4
survey instrument, (b) measured the level of virtual proximity in the region, and (c) correlated the existence of innovation with the level of virtual proximity in the organizations involved.
Detailed results from the CIS4
(10) for Norway indicate that:
The new Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) legislation will come into force on April 6 2006 and will have a significant impact on any construction company which uses CIS4
Also, it doesn't matter that an individual holds a CIS4
subcontractor's card, it's a question of whether he or she is really an employee and should therefore be taxed as such.
However, it is worth noting that local Inspectors of Taxes are split on the interpretation of what should be 'minor and technical' which could result in a large number of subcontractors being allocated a CIS4
Registration card in one area, while a company with similar criteria but in a different location, being granted a CIS5 or 6 certificate.