The CEAP classification
is recommended by the current guidelines for assessment of the clinical status, origin, anatomy, and pathophysiology of CVI and VVs, while Duplex ultrasonography should be performed as the non-invasive technique of choice in patients with suspected venous disease (17-19).
CVD was evaluated according to CEAP classification
. Patients fulfilling CEAP class 3, 4, and 5 were included in this study.
The scoring system used to classify and stage venous insufficiency is called the clinical manifestations, etiological factors, anatomical distribution, and pathophysiological conditions classification (CEAP classification
) [2, 3].
Ninety four patients (56%) were classified as Grade-2, forty patients (26.7%) were classified as Grade-3 and twenty six patients (17.3%) were classified as Grade-4 according to CEAP Classification
The subjects involved in this study consisted of 32 patients (for a total of 60 plasma samples) affected by primary CVI with superficial venous reflux (C2-4EpAsPr following the CEAP classification
) enrolled by the Vascular Disease Center at the University of Ferrara, in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and with approval obtained from the University Hospital of Ferrara.
All of them had the problem of varicous veins of the 2-3-4 class of the CEAP classification
. In the anamnesis we have considered the following symptomatologic indicators : pain, perception of heaviness, paresthesias, nocturnal cramps, restless leg "syndrome", pruritus.
Participants in the screening program also underwent a lower-extremity inspection and were assigned a CEAP classification
(based on clinical severity, etiology or cause, anatomy, and pathophysiology).
SonoSoft's Vein Specialist module produces reports of every procedure, including a complete initial workup, endovenous ablation procedures (laser or radiofrequency) and follow-up visits for sclerotherapy, and can automatically generate a CEAP classification
The final chapters discuss CEAP classification
of venous disorders, and how to set up a phlebology practice.
To ensure uniformity in the diagnostic and evaluation records for different modes of treatment, the Society for Vascular Surgery and the International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery have proposed the CEAP classification
for universal use, which covers the Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, and Physiopathological aspects.