The CDMD Questionnaire-Revised (CDDQ-R; Gati & Saka, 2001) was developed based on a three-category taxonomy of CDMD by Gati et al.
Weak positive correlations were found between Type II styles and CDMD and between Type II styles and career exploration.
Therefore, only a general mediation model was examined from thinking styles (Type I and Type II styles) to CDMD (LR and LI clusters) through career exploration (self-exploration and environment exploration).
In line with Hypothesis 1, Type I styles positively predicted both types of career exploration and negatively predicted both clusters of CDMD (path a = .
The mediation effect of career exploration (specifically, environment exploration) on the link of Type I thinking styles and CDMD was also partially supported.
In contrast, and partially consistent with Hypothesis 2, Type II styles only significantly predicted CDMD in LR and LI.
Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) proposed and tested a three-category taxonomy of CDMD and developed the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire--Revised (CDDQ-R; Gati & Saka, 2001).
We conducted a follow-up hierarchical multiple regression analysis to examine the contributions of perceived family intrusiveness to CDMD in career readiness with the mediating effect of family orientation based on Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria: (a) The total effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable must be significant, (b) the path from the independent variable to the mediator must be significant, (c) the path from the mediator to the dependent variable must be significant, and (d) these relations must reduce the direct effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
Study 2 aimed to investigate the cultural similarities and differences on the associations among family intrusiveness, family orientation, and CDMD in career readiness and to further investigate the mediation model obtained in Study 1 in a cross-cultural comparison.
In this article, we first examined the cultural similarities and differences of family intrusiveness, family orientation, and CDMD in career readiness.
It is important for counselors to understand how the family could facilitate career development, including overcoming CDMD.
However, the measures for family intrusiveness, family orientation, and lack of readiness in CDMD were only based on the students' self-report of perceived rather than actual parental or self-behaviors.