As noted earlier, Type I and Type II styles directly predict both the taxonomies of CDMD (LR and LI) and self- and environment explorations (see the direct paths of a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and h).
CDMD. The CDMD Questionnaire-Revised (CDDQ-R; Gati & Saka, 2001) was developed based on a three-category taxonomy of CDMD by Gati et al.
Most Type I styles negatively correlated with different types of CDMD, but positively correlated with the two kinds of career exploration.
Therefore, only a general mediation model was examined from thinking styles (Type I and Type II styles) to CDMD (LR and LI clusters) through career exploration (self-exploration and environment exploration).
In line with Hypothesis 1, Type I styles positively predicted both types of career exploration and negatively predicted both clusters of CDMD (path a = .31, path b = -.99, path c = -.45, path d = .41).
On the basis of Zhang and Sternberg's (2005) intellectual style taxonomy, we examined the role of thinking styles in Chinese college students' career exploration and CDMD. Our results further demonstrate in a Chinese context the cultural-relevant validity of intellectual styles in the domain of career development.
In contrast, and partially consistent with Hypothesis 2, Type II styles only significantly predicted CDMD in LR and LI.
We conducted a follow-up hierarchical multiple regression analysis to examine the contributions of perceived family intrusiveness to CDMD in career readiness with the mediating effect of family orientation based on Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria: (a) The total effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable must be significant, (b) the path from the independent variable to the mediator must be significant, (c) the path from the mediator to the dependent variable must be significant, and (d) these relations must reduce the direct effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
Study 2 aimed to investigate the cultural similarities and differences on the associations among family intrusiveness, family orientation, and CDMD in career readiness and to further investigate the mediation model obtained in Study 1 in a cross-cultural comparison.
In this article, we first examined the cultural similarities and differences of family intrusiveness, family orientation, and CDMD in career readiness.
It is important for counselors to understand how the family could facilitate career development, including overcoming CDMD. In Whiston and Keller's (2004) review, family structure variables (e.g., parents' educational background), family process variables (e.g., intrusiveness), and personality factors were found to influence a host of career constructs.
However, the measures for family intrusiveness, family orientation, and lack of readiness in CDMD were only based on the students' self-report of perceived rather than actual parental or self-behaviors.