Alonso, "Changes in CDKN2D
, TP53, and miR125a expression: potential role in the evaluation of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cell fitness," Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms, vol.
Based on their structure and CDK specificity, CDKIs are classified into the INK4 family CDKIs ([p16.sup.INK4a] (Cdkn2a), [p15.sup.INK4b] (Cdkn2b), [p18.sup.INK4c] (Cdkn2c), and [p19.sup.INK4d] (Cdkn2d
)) that inhibit CDK4/6 activity by competing with cyclin D to bind CDK4/6 and the Cip/Kip family CDKIs ([p21.sup.Cip1] (Cdkn1a), [p27.sup.Kip1] (Cdkn1b), and [p57.sup.Kip2] (Cdkn1c)) that associate with both cyclins and CDKs and interfere with the activities of cyclin D-, E-, A-, and B-CDK complexes.
(6-14,15,17-21-23) Table 3: Summary of the most frequent genomic alterations in BPDCN Change Chromosome Cytoband Loss 13 q12.11-q34 Loss 12 p13.2 Loss 9 p21.3 Loss 9 q34 Loss 5 q23.1-a35.2 Loss 15 q11.2-a26.3 Loss 3 p22.2-p21.1 Loss 19 p13.4-p13.2 Loss 17 p13.3-p11.2 Loss 7 p22.3-p22.1 Loss 6 q23.3-q27 Change % of patients Candidate genes Loss 50-78 RB1 Loss 50-67 CDKN1B, ETV6 Loss 50-66 CDKN2A, CDKN2B, MTAP Loss 50-55 NOTCH, TRAF2, CARD9 Loss 21-44 SMAD5, MSH3, MCC, APC Loss 33-36 CYP1A1 Loss 29 PTPN23 Loss 22-29 CDKN2D
, PRKCSH Loss 22 TP53 Loss 21 MAD1L1 Loss 11-21 PARK2 Table 3: Summary of the most frequent genomic alterations in BPDCN.
Previous studies of cell cycle regulating proteins in MLS/RCLS revealed a prominent expression of growth promoting G1 cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDK), coexpressed with cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P16, P19, and P27 (also known as CDKN2A, CDKN2D
, and CDKN1B, resp.) .
Overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (WAF1) from the kinase inhibitor protein group and PAK-[gamma] (p21- activated kinase [gamma]), combined with overexpression of CDKN2D
(p19-INK4D) and cell division protein kinase 3 (CDK3), denote a major derangement in the regulation of cell-cycle progression.
Interestingly, NANOG upregulates histone deacetylases 1 (HDAC1) via binding to the promoter region and decreasing K14 and K27 histone H3 acetylation; as a result, it induces not only the stem-like features through epigenetic repression of cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2D
and CDKN1B but also the immune resistance and chemoresistance through MCL-1 upregulation by epigenetic silencing of E3 ubiquitin-ligase TRIM17 and NOXA .
The probe set IDs of TaqMan probe and primer sets for ACLY, AURKB, CD74, CDKN2D, E2F1, EFEMP1, LIF, and TGM2 are provided in Table 1.
Correlations between the mRNA expression levels of ACLY, AURKB, CD74, CDKN2D, E2F1, EFEMP1, LIF, and TGM2 were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analyses with the nearest-neighbor algorithm and are presented in a dendrogram that was generated using SPSS version 24.0.
In this analysis, the relative mRNA expression levels of CDKN2D, CD74, and TGM2 in MSCs from 15 donors were recalculated relative to maximum values of 100 for each gene, and the distances between each point and the origin were then calculated.
Based on these correlation patterns, AURKB, E2F1, CDKN2D, LIF, and ACLY were allocated to group 1 and CD74, EFEMP1, and TGM2 were allocated to group 2, suggesting the presence of two predominant signaling pathways that determine chondrogenic differentiation potential.
Moreover, the expression levels of CDKN2D, CD74, and TGM2 were 22-, 18-, and 10-fold higher, respectively, in ilium MSCs than in jaw MSCs.
Seven genes only (FOS, CDKN2D
, MAP2K1, MAPK7, MAPK13, PDK1, and SFN) were characterised by an increase in their expression, whereas the expression of other genes was reduced.