The complement activation product C5a interacts not only with PMN via abundantly expressed specific receptors (C5aR1 = CD88 and C5aR2 = C5L2 = GPR77) [5, 6] but also with other immune cells and epithelial cells .
Measurements of CD88 (C5aR1) were conducted after incubating cells with FITC-labeled anti-CD88 antibody for twenty minutes.
Morgan, "Expression of functional receptors for human C5a anaphylatoxin (CD88
) on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.
Powers et al., "C5a receptor (CD88
) blockade protects against MPO-ANCA GN," Journal of the American Society Nephrology, vol.
Expression of the C5a receptor (CD88
) on granulocytes and monocytes in patients with severe sepsis.
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol) also rapidly induces the differentiation of THP1 cells into mDCs  with high expression of mDC-specific markers such as CD80, CD83, CD86, and CD88
. However, there is no information regarding drugs that regulate 27OHChol-mediated differentiation into mDCs.
Overexpression of MARCH8 leads to the downregulation of several immunomodulatory receptors, including MHC I HLA 2.1, MHC II, CD95 (Fas), B7.2, TfR, CD166, CD44, CD88
, and CD98, indicating that it plays a significant role in immune suppression [6, 15, 30, 31, 37, 46, 95, 96].
Interestingly, while toddaculin at 250 [micro]M was able to induce apoptosis in U-937 cells, involving decreased phosphorytation levels of ERIC and Akt, 50 [micro]M toddaculin exerted differentiating effects, inducing both the capacity of U-937 cells to reduce NBT and the expression of differentiation markers CD88
and CD11 b, but no change in p-Akt or p-ERK levels.
(13.) Kiener HP, Baghestanian M, Dominkus M, et al: Expression of the C5a receptor (CD88
) on synovial mast cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
March1 Modulates C5aR (CD88
) Expression by Alveolar Macrophages and Lymphocytes.
Sarau et al., "Chimeric receptors of the human C3a receptor and C5a receptor (CD88
)," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
C3a and C5a exert these proinflammatory effects by binding to their respective receptors, C3a receptor (C3aR), and the two receptors for C5, C5a receptor (C5aR; CD88
) and C5a receptor-like 2 receptor (C5L2) .