In addition to the whole range of MSC surface markers, including CD73, CD90, and CD105, MenSCs also express some pluripotency markers, such as OCT-4, SSEA-4 [17,21], highly upregulated levels of CD49a
 but lack of STRO1 expression [23, 24], which further distinguishes them from BMMSCs.
dNK cells are characterized by a [CD56.sup.superbright][CD16.sup.-] phenotype, along with the expression of specific surface markers, such as CD9 (a tetraspanin protein family that plays a role in cell adhesion and cell motility), CD49a (an integrin alpha subunit that binds collagen and laminin), and CD69, an early activation molecule [7, 16, 17].
We investigated the expression of dNK surface marker expression (CD9 and CD49a) on PE-NK cells.
For example, several integrins such as [[alpha].sub.1] integrin (CD49A
), [[alpha].sub.2] integrin (CD49B), [[alpha].sub.2b] integrin (CD41), and [[beta].sub.1] integrin (CD29) were upregulated in the liver metastasizing cell line, whereas angiopoetin 1 and MMP10 were upregulated genes of the peritoneal disseminating cell line.
SLL and vascular smooth muscle moderately, and vascular endothelium and especially capillaries strongly expressed CD49a
, b, c, f, and CD29 in both the normal and the OA groups (Fig.
Moreover, dNK cells have a high expression of killer cell lectinlike receptor subfamily D (KLRD1) , CD9 , and CD49a
 and an increased frequency of expression of CD69 .
Three different NK subsets have been characterized on the basis of distinctive surface antigen expression and described as (a) [CD56.sup.dim][CD16.sup.+] that represents the conventional cytotoxic NKs, characterized by the high release of perforin and granzymes; (b) [CD56.sup.bright][CD16.sup.-] that are able to release a large amount of cytokines; (c) [CD56.sup.superbright][CD16.sup.-] that are able to produce proangiogenic factors, including VEGF, IL-8, and SDF-1 and are characterized by the expression of specific surface markers as CD9 and CD49a
Threecolor staining--fluorescein-isothiocyanate, phycoerythrin, and allophycocyanin-conjugated primary antibodies against ABCG2, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD47, CD49a, CD49d, CD51, CD73, CD90, CD105, and Nestin--were applied for 30 minutes at 4[degrees]C.
Adhesion molecules CD51, CD49a, CD49d, and integrin-related CD47 showed an increased expression, with no significant difference being detected between the conditions.
Numerous putative human MSC surface markers (i.e., CD49a
, CD73 , CD105 , CD106 , CD271 , MSC antigen-1 , Stro-1 , and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 ) have been identified thus far.
ADSC were positive for CD13, 44, CD49a
, CD63, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166.
described a perivascular population residing in human fetal and term placenta, which co-expressed MSC/PC markers (Stro-1, 3G5, CD105, CD106, CD146, CD49a
, [alpha]-MA) but not hematovascular markers (CD117, CD34, vWF) and were competent for trilineage mesenchymal differentiation .