We recognize that CD40L
may be unstable and that a delay of up to 72 h in processing may be a study limitation; however, stability issues have not been a documented problem in plasma (EDTA, citrate) but only with serum (19, 20).
van der Wal et al., "Increased expression of T cell activation markers (CD25, CD26, CD40L
and CD69) in atherectomy specimens of patients with unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction," Atherosclerosis, vol.
Weber, "Platelet CD40 ligand (CD40L
)--Subcellular localization, regulation of expression, and inhibition by clopidogrel," Platelets, vol.
In addition, the expression of OX40, CD40L
, and GITR (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor) at the effector T cell surface could dictate the resistance of effector T cells to TREG suppression.
CD40 ligand (CD40L
) is expressed on a variety of cell types, including activated platelets.
Platelet activation induces the expression of cell adhesion molecules on the extracellular surface, which bind to the leukocytes through P-selectin (CD62P)-P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, GPIIb/IIIa-Mac1, and CD40 ligand (CD40L
)-CD40 [62, 63].
Daniels et al., "Killing of normal melanocytes, combined with heat shock protein 70 and CD40L
expression, cures large established melanomas," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
Platelets sustain the inflammatory process at all stages of atherosclerosis by expressing membrane molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), P-selectin, CD95L, and CD40L
that regulate several biological functions in the vessel wall, including cellular adhesion and aggregation,
CD40 ligand (CD40L
) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and is produced in a variety of cells, including platelets.
and sCD40L forms interact with the CD40 receptor molecule, which is present not only on B cells but also on monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells in atheromas, leading to release of matrix MMPs and subsequent destabilization of the plaque (36).
CD62P and CD40L
are expressed on activated platelets and are directly involved in the interaction of platelets with monocytes and endothelial cells .
has biological effects on many cell types (13).