Its activation of CD40
, a receptor in the dendritic cells of the immune system, enables those cells to stimulate certain weapons belonging to the immune system -- in this case, T cells -- allowing the immune system to selectively attack the cancer.
"It is the combination of the location of CD40
, which seems to be a real sweet spot of activity, along with the ability to cluster the immune cell's receptors that gives such a potent response, one that we hope will be translated into the clinic to benefit patients," he added.
Distinct subcellular localization and substrate specificity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in B cells upon stimulation with IgM and CD40
. J Immunol 1999;163:6589-97.
The thermal profile for amplification of CD40
C/T-1 was: 10 minutes initial denaturation at 95AdegC followed by 35 cycles including denaturation at 95AdegC for 45 seconds, annealing at 56AdegC for 1 minute, extension for 1 minute at 72AdegC and ultimate extension was carried out at 72AdegC for 7 minutes.
The phenotype analysis of Immature BMDC revealed that GM-[CSF.sup.lo] DC derived from culture as well as kit method expressed intermediate level of MHCII, decreased expression of CD86, and very low levels of CD40
(Figures 3 and 4).
Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokines TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], and TGF-[beta], as well as CD40
, IL17a, IL-21, and CCL19, were closely related to the canonical and noncanonical NF-[kappa]B pathway.
Similar to MSCs, iPSC-MSC EVs did not significantly affect CD11c expression in SMGs but significantly decreased the expression of CD21 and CD40
and increased the IL10 expression (Figure 4(g)).
Daniel et al., "Pitfalls of "hyper" IgM syndrome: A new CD40
ligand mutation in the presence of low IgM levels.
Protein concentrations of IL-1[beta], TNF-[alpha], PAI1, and CD40
were measured with standard ELISA kits (R&D Systems Europe, UK), according to the manufacturer's protocols.
CD154 and CD40
are other potent activators of T cells; monoclonal antibodies against either of these surface proteins have potential for application in transplant immunosuppression.
The university's Dr Nik Georgopoulos is developing a new form of treatment based on the protein molecule named CD40
(Cluster of Differentiation 40), which destroys cancerous tumours without harming healthy cell tissue.
Many signalings were coupled to CD40
; for example, P38 MAPK/TNF[alpha] and PI3K/Akt /NF-kappab have been shown to enlarge systemic inflammation and promote differentiation of Th1 and Th17 (20).