Immunophenotypically, neoplastic cells express CD20, CD79a, CD21 and CD35
. They may be negative for CD5, CD10 and CD23 and positive or negative for CD43 and CD11c.
(15,16,21) The lesional cells are negative for S100 and CD35
. (15,21) Fungal, acid-fast, and bacterial stains have invariably negative results.
Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining for CD23 (Figure 6(a)), CD35
(Figure 6(b)), and vimentin.
We also used CD25 (PC61) and Foxp3 (FJK16s) to assess regulatory T cell population, CD11b (M1/70) to assess macrophages, CD44 (IM7) and CD62 (MEL-14) to assess memory T cells, CD138 (281-2) for plasma cells, and CD80 (1610-A1) and CD35
(8C12) for memory B cells.
It has wide morphological spectrum on light microscopy and has characteristic immune-reactivity for dendritic cell markers (CD21, CD23, and CD35
Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the spindle cells in the submucosal were positive for CD34 [Figure 3]a and negative for CD117, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) [Figure 3]b, DOG-1, S-100 protein, desmin, smooth muscle actin, fascin, and CD35
. Ki-67 staining was <2%, indicating a very low proliferative index.
Autoantibodies combine with self-antigens to form immune complexes, which lead to the activation of B cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) through receptor systems expressed on the surface of B cells, such as Fc receptors, complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1 and CR2, also known as CD21 and CD35
), and B cell receptors (BCRs) [52, 53].
In systemic histiocytic disorders, such as juvenile xanthogranuloma, xanthoma disseminatum, Erdheim-Chester disease, and dendrocytomas, FXIII-A, along with other markers (e.g., S100, CD1a, CD68, fascin, CD207, and CD35
), is also used as a key diagnostic tool [49-51].
The binding of C3b to E.coli enable the complex to get identified by phagocyte receptors including CRI (CD35
) and CR3 (CDllb) to start the phagocytosis process which in turn initiates the process of phagocytosis.
Markers like CD62L low and CD11b high are associated with suppressor phenotypes, and others such as CD11c, CD32, CD35
, CD45, and CD66b can be upregulated in suppressor neutrophils.
Frank, "Role of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD35
and CD21), C3, C4, and C5 in survival by mice of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia," Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol.