M1 macrophages express CD11b, CD11c, and F4/80 and secrete TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-6, nitric oxide (NO), and leukotriene B4, while M2 macrophages express CD11b, F4/80, CD301
, and CD206 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 [23, 24].
M2 macrophages express cell surface markers CD206, CD301
, and CD163, secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), and express high levels of arginase-1 [15, 99].
In contrast, markers for the alternative anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage activation such as Mrc1 (mannose receptor, C type 1, also known as Cluster of differentiation molecule-206, Cd206) and Mgl1 (galactosetype C-type lectin 1, also referred to as Cluster of differentiation molecule-301, Cd301
) were upregulated in the liver.
Signal transduction TSC2, SOCS3 mTOR, SHIP1, SOCS1, molecules: Notch PDL-1, CD163, CD204, CD206, CD301
, IRAK- M Ron, TRAF-2, Rock2 Soluble mediators IL-12, TNF-a, Gas6 IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, (cytokines, growth CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-10, L-33, IL-34, factors): CXCL11 TGF-[alpha], CSF-1 Ym1, Fizz1, SDF-1, WNT5A, WNT7B, BMP6 CCL1, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL24, CXCL8, CXCL12 Transcription NF-kB p65/p50 NF-[kappa]B p50- factors: STAT1 p50, STAT3, STAT6, PPAR[gamma] RORC1- ROR[gamma], HIF-1, HIF-2, IRF4 miRNAs: miR-155, miR-33 miR-146a, miRNA let 7b, miR-223