Navidea's Manocept platform is predicated on the ability to specifically target the CD206
mannose receptor expressed on activated macrophages.
In our study, CD163 and CD206
expression, markers of alternative activated macrophages (M2), did not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes (50).
To determine the polarization status of general macrophage populations in the tumors and their changes with injection of USPIO, immunofluorescence staining of the tumor cross sections was conducted for pan-macrophage (CD68), inflammatory (M1-like AIF1 (allograft inflammatory factor 1)), and wound-healing surface marker phenotypes (M2-like CD206
(mannose receptor)), besides Prussian blue iron histology as the primary observable (Figures 3(a)-3(e)).
For evaluation the number of M1 and M2 macrophages in day 10 wounds, we counterstained the sections by immunofluorescence with CD68 (Abcam) and iNOS (Abcam) to calculate M1 macrophages and with CD68 and CD206
(Abcam) to calculate M2 macrophages.
Salomao, "CD163 and CD206
expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes," Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry, vol.
In addition, sitagliptin significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of Cd68, F4/80, and M1 marker (Cd11c) and increased the M2 marker Cd206
, showing the reduced number of infiltrated macrophages and attenuated M1/M2 polarization imbalance in the liver (Figure 4(c), p < 0.01).
The following primers were utilized: CD11c, sense 5'-GTGCCCATCAGTTCCT TACA-3' and antisense 5'-GAGAAGAACTGTGGAGCTG AC-3'; CD206
, sense 5'-GGAATCAAGGGCACAGAGT TA-3' and antisense 5'-ATTGTGGAGCAGATGGAA-3; F4/80, sense 5'-CGTCAGGTACGGGATGAATATAAG-3' and antisense 5 ' -CTATGCCATCCACTTCCAAGAT-3'; and cyclophilin A, sense 5' -CAGACGCCACTGTCGCTTT3' and antisense 5'-TGTCTTTGGAACTTTGTCTGCAA-3'.
Meanwhile, we did not observe any changes in the expression of markers CD68 and CD206
or secretion of cytokines IL-12 and IL-10.
On the contrary, M2 macrophages have been demonstrated to express high levels of dectin-1, DCSIGN (CD209), mannose receptor (CD206
), scavenger receptor A, scavenger receptor B-1, CD163, CCR2, CXCR1, and CXCR2  and to produce a large amount of IL-10, YM1, macrophage and granulocyte inducer-form 1 (MgI1), and arginase-1, highlighting their relevance during tissue remodelling and repair .
The following antibodies were used: VEGF, abcam46160 and abcam1613; CXCR4, abcam124824; CXCL12, abcam25117; p-JAK, CST3717; CD31, abcam28364; inducible NO synthase (iNOS), abcam15323; arginase 1 (Arg-1), CST385; CD11b, abcam1211; CD206
, abcam64693 and abcam8918; Alexa Fluor 488, ALEXA21202 and 594 and ALEXA21207.
probed cortical tissue from patients with AD for markers of alternative activation and found increased Arginase-1 (Arg1), Cluster of Differentiation 206 (CD206
), Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (Chi3 l1), Chitinase-3-like protein 2 (Chi3 l2), and TNF-[alpha], with unchanged expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-1[beta] .
CD14 (555-397, BD Bioscience, Heidelberg, Germany), CD68 (11-0689-42, eBioscience, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), CD163 (12-1639-42, eBioscience), and CD206
(12-2069-42, eBioscience) were used as positive markers for macrophages.