Morimatsu et al., "Overexpression of CD163, CD204
and CD206 on alveolar macrophages in the lungs of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," PLoS One, vol.
On the other hand, the alternatively activated M2 macrophages express immunosuppressive cytokines, intracellular signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and scavenger receptors such as CD163, CD204
, and CD206 and promote tumor supportive CD4+ regulatory T cells [156-159].
In addition, phenotypic characterisation of AMs and IMs in mice revealed differences in the expression levels of MHC classII, CD11b, CD14, CD45, CD54, CD68, CD71, CD204, CD206, and Siglec-F [5-9].
AMs from patients with COPD express less costimulatory molecules, such as the T cell activation and survival signalling molecule CD80, major histocompatibility antigens [150, 233], Fcy receptors and integrins on their surface , more CD163, and carbohydrate and lipid scavenger receptors, such as CD206 and CD204 than non-COPD smokers and nonsmokers .
M2 macrophages express the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163, mannose receptor MRC1/CD206, macrophage scavenger receptor I (CD204), and macrophage galactose C-type lectin 1 (MGL1/CD301) [14, 21] as well as low levels of MHC II .
Signal transduction TSC2, SOCS3 mTOR, SHIP1, SOCS1, molecules: Notch PDL-1, CD163, CD204, CD206, CD301, IRAK- M Ron, TRAF-2, Rock2 Soluble mediators IL-12, TNF-a, Gas6 IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, (cytokines, growth CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-10, L-33, IL-34, factors): CXCL11 TGF-[alpha], CSF-1 Ym1, Fizz1, SDF-1, WNT5A, WNT7B, BMP6 CCL1, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL24, CXCL8, CXCL12 Transcription NF-kB p65/p50 NF-[kappa]B p50- factors: STAT1 p50, STAT3, STAT6, PPAR[gamma] RORC1- ROR[gamma], HIF-1, HIF-2, IRF4 miRNAs: miR-155, miR-33 miR-146a, miRNA let 7b, miR-223
After about five days the more prevalent type has switched to the alternatively activated M2 macrophage (Arginase 1 (Arg1); macrophage mannose receptor (Mrc1, CD206); Macrophage scavenger receptor (Msr1, SR-A, CD204
CD163, CD200, CD204, CD68, F4/80, and the lectin binding protein Iba-1 can be used as general markers of microglia/macrophages [22, 23].
Whereas the alternatively activated pathway, M2, is characterized by the expression of surface CD163 and CD204, expression of intracellular STAT-3 and the production of arginase [36, 37] (Figure 2).
Fujiwara et al., "Suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory response by macrophage class A scavenger receptor (CD204)," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
Guo et al., "Pattern recognition scavenger receptor CD204 attenuates toll-like receptor 4-induced NF[kappa]B activation by directly inhibiting ubiquitination of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6," The Journal Of Biological Chemistry, vol.286, no.21, pp.18795-18806, 2011.
M2 macrophages are characterized by efficient phagocytic activity, high expression of several receptors such as class A scavenger receptor (CD204
), MR, dectin-1, CD209, CD163, production of ornithine and polyamines through the arginase pathway, and an IL-[12.sup.lo] IL-[10.sup.hi] IL-1decoy[R.sup.hi] IL-1R[A.sup.hi] phenotype [54, 56, 60],