Overall, this strategy provided a concise genetic approach that revealed specific amino acid positions and side chain motifs in Vpr that were coselected with CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor
utilization during replication in HIV-1-infected patients.
In conclusion, our study documented for the first time a strong predictive association, independent from other available markers, that a high FPR, predicting a CCR5 coreceptor
usage, is protective in children and is related to a better immunological (CD4 level) and clinical outcome.
HIV-1 escape to CCR5 coreceptor
antagonism through selection of CXCR4-using variants in vitro.
Also, after work on polyanions began, research showed that viruses using the CCR5 coreceptor
are preferentially transmitted, and polyanions had even lower potency against those R5 viruses.
A CCR5 coreceptor
antagonist approved for use in combination with other anti-retroviral drugs for treating adults infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple anti-retroviral agents.
A CCR5 coreceptor
antagonist approved for use in combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treating adults infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents.
One of the drugs, Pfizer Inc.'s maraviroc, is an antagonist to the CCR5 coreceptor
used by HIV to enter CD4-positive T cells.
Primary infection with HIV-1 is associated to macrophagetropic virus strains which infect mostly monocytes and macrophages bearing both the CD4 receptor and CCR5 coreceptor
. Although the CCR5 coreceptor
is required for chemokine signaling, individuals lacking the CCR5 alleles appear to have normal immune responses (56,57).
This drug blocks viral interaction with the CCR5 coreceptor
on the cell.
Factors such as the local inflammatory response caused by bacterial vaginosis, urethritis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been associated with upregulation of CCR5 coreceptor
expression and increased activation of T lymphocytes in the mucosa of women, thus leading to increased susceptibility.
R5 exclusively uses CCR5 coreceptors
while X4 takes advantage of CXCR4 coreceptors and R5/X4 strains can use both .