CCND2

CCND2

A gene on chromosome 12p13 that encodes a member of the highly conserved cyclin family, which regulates CDK kinases. Cyclin D2 forms a complex with and is a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, which are required for cell cycle G1/S transition; it is thought to play a central role in germ cell proliferation. Cyclin D2 interacts with tumour suppressor protein Rb and is involved in its phosphorylation.

Molecular pathology
CCND2 is overexpressed in ovarian and testicular tumours.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Syros' study, RB pathway alterations were prospectively defined per The Cancer Genome Atlas criteria including RB1 deletion or mutation, CDKN2A downregulation or deletion, CCNE1 amplification, CCND1 amplification, or CCND2 upregulation.
CCND2 controls the cell cycle and is known to maintain the proliferative advantage in early transformed cells.
Scientists at Newcastle University performed genomic analysis on AML cells and identified that the key molecules involved in the progression of leukaemia are CDK6 and CCND2.
Next-generation sequencing was performed on the biopsied tissue, gene mutations were found on Cyclin D2 ( CCND2 ) at c.721-110A>C, epidermal growth factor receptor( EGFR ) at c.1298+722C>A and notch homolog 1 ( NOTCH1 )at c.4571C>T; and mutation frequencies were 7.1%, 4.3%, and 0.5%, respectively.
In addition, ADRBK2 (upstream regulator of SMO) and CCND2 (Hh downstream target gene) were also significantly elevated in NAFLD rats (Figure 4(b)).
Some of the potential targets of miR-302b-3p identified in humans (TargetScanHuman 7.1) are MAP3K2, BCL6, CCND2, CCND1, FGF10, RADA2, SMAD2, PAK3, and TGFfiR2 [13].
DADR, BCAT1, and EKI reduce apoptotic susceptibility (176); STELLAR, GDF3, and EDR1 maintain pluripotency of cells, and CCND2 and KRAS provide cells with a proliferative advantage, among other genes on chromosome arm 12p that confer a survival benefit to cells.
Genes connected to p53 signaling, such as the genes encoding tumor protein 53 (TP53) inducible nuclear proteins [TP53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) and ribonucleotide reductase regulatory TP53 inducible subunit M2B (RRM2B)], cyclins [cyclin D2 (CCND2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1)], MDM2 proto-oncogene (MDM2), pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1 (PLAGL1), and DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator 1 (DRAM1) were also upregulated in CTC-MCC-41 cells.
Furthermore, there is considerable overlap in the genes regulated by both FOXO3A and MYC, both in those related to growth promotion such as CCND2, CDK4, and CCNE2 and in those related to growth inhibition such as BBC3, CDKN1B, and GADD45A [35, 36], suggesting that the expression of such genes is regulated by both FOXO3A and MYC in an antagonistic manner.
Of the 10 genes tested, the methylation status of SSBP2, MCAM, ER[alpha], ER[beta], CCND2, MGMT, GSTP1, and p16 genes were best matched when comparing the results from serum to prostate cancer tissue [21].
The researchers identified several mutations that may contribute as cooperating mutations, including changes in CCND2, a gene that makes a protein involved in the cell cycle.