CCND1

CCND1

A gene on chromosome 11q13 that encodes a member of the highly conserved cyclin family, which regulates CDK kinases. Cyclin D1 forms a complex with and is a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, which are required for cell cycle G1/S transition; it also interacts with tumour suppressor protein Rb, which regulates the expression of CCND1.
 
Molecular pathology
CCND1 mutations, amplification and overexpression alter cell cycle progression, occur in various tumours and play a role in tumourigenesis.
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(208) Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes targeting 13 of these regions were developed and tested against a cohort of nevi and melanomas, eventually yielding a final probe set targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 6q23 (MYB), and 11q13 (CCND1) (as well as a probe against centromere 6).
In Syros' study, RB pathway alterations were prospectively defined per The Cancer Genome Atlas criteria including RB1 deletion or mutation, CDKN2A downregulation or deletion, CCNE1 amplification, CCND1 amplification, or CCND2 upregulation.
[beta]-catenin accumulates in the nucleus, binds to T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF), and activates its target genes such as cyclin D1 (CCND1) and the cellular myelo-cytomatosis (MYC) oncogene (19).
Quantitative real-time (qrt)-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of Wnt5a, PTEN, CTNNB1, MAG, CCND1, c-Jun , and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Cyclin D1 (CCND1) overexpression occurs as a result of gene amplification or disorder of growth factors in many types of cancer [7].
Valproic acid inhibits the proliferation of SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cancer cells by downregulating URG4/URGCP and CCND1 gene expression.
Genomic alterations by next-generation sequencing (Foundation One) on the liver biopsy revealed CCND1 amplification, ESR1 Y537S mutation, ARID1A L1915fs*3 mutation, stable microsatellites, and an intermediate tumor burden (six mutations/Mb).
Specifically, HER2/MAPK kinase signaling activates E2F transcription factors, leading to the transcription of CCND1 gene encoding cyclin D1, while active estrogen receptor alpha (ER[alpha]) in complexwith FOXA1 transcription factor intensifies CCND1 transcription through an estradiol-responsive enhancer [85].
Other mutations also identified are TP53, RB1, FGFR3, CCND1, MDM2, PTEN deletions, FGFR 1 amplifications, and aberrations of the chromatin remodeling genes [35].
Some of the potential targets of miR-302b-3p identified in humans (TargetScanHuman 7.1) are MAP3K2, BCL6, CCND2, CCND1, FGF10, RADA2, SMAD2, PAK3, and TGFfiR2 [13].
Bcl2, Ccnd1, Cdk6, and Sox4), intestinal stem cells (Lgr5, Olfm4, and Bmi1) [10], mucin biology (Muc2 and Muc6), and tight junctions (occludin, zonulin-1, and Jam) was analyzed using real-time PCR (Table S1).