Although we did not detect any SNP associated with either oxidative DNA damage or IUGR, in univariate analysis we found four genes (MBL2, CCL7
, CCL11, and CCL18) modifying the incidence of LBW.
Not so close was the correlation with the CC family of chemokines some of which (CCL4, CCL5, CCL7
, and CCL11) were highly released in A6 and C6 HaCaT cells, but quite low in normal human KCs; CCL2 was higher in C6 HaCaT as in normal KCs, whereas CCL3 was similar.
In a concurrent set of bDNA-based assays, unexpected increases in IL-6, CCL7
, PTX3, and CCL2 mRNA expression were observed in whole blood not stimulated with exogenous cytokines.
Our conditions of ischemia led to downregulation of certain chemoattractant molecules, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL7
, which primarily increase migration of MSCs and cells of the monocyte-macrophage system [25,26].
Moreover, KCs can promote HSC survival, inducing NF-[kappa]B signalling via TNF-[alpha] and IL-1 secretion [131,133]; furthermore, the secretion of several chemokines (i.e., CCL2, CCL3-5, CCL7
and CCL8) by macrophages can promote HSC migration .
Finally, group 4 included IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-16, IL-18, CCL5, CCL7
, CCL27, CXCL1, FGF, IFN-[alpha]2, IFN-[gamma], TNF-[alpha], TRAIL, and [beta]-NGF.
(Hs00171147_m1) and MCP-1 (also known as CCL2) (Sp03766212_g1) Taqman probes were obtained from Thermo Fisher Scientific.
To determine RNA expression levels of various genes, real-time PCR was carried out using 5 [micro]L of gene expression master mix (Life technologies, Germany) and 0.5 [micro]L of the gene expression assay for Mcp-1 (Ccl2) (Mm99999056_m1), Rantes (Ccl5) (Mm01302428_m1), Mcp-3 (Ccl7
) (Mm00443113_m1), Ip-10 (Cxcl10) (Mm99999072_m1), Cxcl13 (Mm00444534_m1), Il-6 (Mm00446190_m1), Il-23a (Mm00518984_m1), Tnf-a (Mm00443258_m1) Cd3 (Mm01179194_m1), Cd4 (Mm00442754_m1), Cd8 (Mm01182107_g1), Cd19 (Mm00515420_m1), Col1a1 (Mm01302043_g1), Col3a1 (Mm00802331_m1), Ctgf (Mm00515790_g1), Tgf-p1 (Mm0044172Thm1), Timp-1 (Mm00441818_m1), or Mmp13 (Mm01168712_m1) purchased from Life Technologies.
Together with certain other chemokines (CCL4, CCL7
, and CCL14), CX3CL1 is involved in the processes of implantation, trophoblast invasion into the spiral uterine arteries, placental angiogenesis, response to inflammatory and immunologic factors within the utero-placental unit, and induction of labor [15-17].
Multiplex kits, Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine 27-Plex Panel (IL-1[beta], IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL17A, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10, TNF-[alpha], G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-[gamma], PDGF-BB, and VEGF) and BioPlex Human Cytokine 21-Plex Panel (IL-1a[alpha], IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL12(p40), IL-16, IL-18, CCL7
, CCL27, CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL12, HGF, IFN- [alpha]2, LIF, M-CSF, MIF, [beta]-NGF, SCF, SCGF-[beta]0, TNF-[beta], and TRAIL), were used for detection of a total of 48 analytes.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are derived mostly from circulating monocytes which are attracted into tumor sites by locally produced chemotactic factors, such as CCL2, CCL5, CCL7
, CCL8, and CXCL12, and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) .
Chemokines including CCL2, CCL5, CCL7
, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CXCL5, CXCL8, and CXCL10 are upregulated in different depots of adipose tissue.