Interestingly, CCL27 and CXCL13, which are increased in BMS-CONTROL compared to BMS-COPD, are classified as homeostatic chemokines .
Analysis of the serum cytokine and chemokine panel in the biomass-exposed group revealed higher levels of CCL15 (inflammatory), CCL27 (homeostatic), and CXCL13 (homeostatic) in BMS-CONTROL subjects compared to BMS-COPD.
Our laboratory evaluated the use of CCL27 and CCL28 to augment responses to an influenza hemagglutinin- (HA-) encoding DNA vaccine .
CCL25, CCL27, and CCL28 are some of the most well-studied mucosal chemokines and are used to promote the generation of antigen-specific mucosal immunity following immunization.
Finally, group 4 included IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-16, IL-18, CCL5, CCL7, CCL27, CXCL1, FGF, IFN-[alpha]2, IFN-[gamma], TNF-[alpha], TRAIL, and [beta]-NGF.
Cytokines in group 4 did not differ significantly in values between the patients and the controls, but a similar reduction in value from the acute phase to the convalescent phase in the patients was observed in FGF (K = 0.79), while a similar increase in value from the acute phase to the convalescent phase was observed in TNF-[alpha] (K = 0.83) and CCL27 (K = 0.43).
These stimuli cause the release of a number of chemoattractants, such as CCL20, CCL19, and CCL27
, which direct dendritic cell migration toward the epithelium and underlying mucosa .
Exposure to Hst1 and LL-37 with Addition of Neutralizing Antibodies against IL-1[alpha], TNF-[alpha], CCL27, CCL28, and IL-18.
For IL-6, CCL2, CCL20, CCL27, CXCL1, and IL1a quantification in culture supernatant, ELISA reagents were used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
Third, IL-31-induced pruritus may be accompanied by skin injury through scratching resulting in the production of primary proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1[alpha] and TNF-[alpha] which in turn may amplify chemokine production (e.g., CCL20 or CCL27
) [53, 73].