The researchers confirmed the relationship between deltaNp63 and MDSCs, showing that blocking two signaling molecules, CXCL2 and CCL22
, activated by the protein reduced metastasis and blood-vessel growth associated with tumor growth, while increasing levels of these signaling molecules, caused MDSCs to boost the secretion of pro-tumor growth factors.
(64) and CSF CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL13, CCL20, CCL22
, NfL, NfH, GFAP, chitinase-3-like-1 MMP-9, osteopontin levels in RIS and RRMS cases Petzold (65) Relationship between CSF NfH values and clinical EDSS Petzold et al.
GM-CSF is basically a hematopoietic and myelopoietic growth factor (17,18) which also promotes production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as 'TNF-[alpha], IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-1[beta] as well as chemokines like CCL22
, CCL24, CCL5 and CCL1 which promote leukocyte recruitment' (17).
Seven ligands, CCL11, CCL17, CCL20, CCL22
, XCL1, XCL2, and CX3CL1, were categorized as dual-function chemokines, which have both inflammatory and homeostatic functions.
Aomatsu-Kikuchi et al., "SCRG1 suppresses LPS-induced CCL22
production through ERK1/2 activation in mouse macrophage Raw264.7 cells," Molecular Medicine Reports, vol.
Moreover, the migration of [CD4.sup.+] [CD25.sup.+] T cells to periodontitis that affected gingival tissues seemed to be dependent on CCL17 and CCL22
expression by the local inflammatory infiltrate, which recruits Treg expressing CCR4 or CCR8 [37, 38].
Plasma concentrations of IFN-[gamma], CXCL9, IL-4, CCL22
, IL-23, and CCL20 were measured using Quantikine[R] ELISA from R&D Systems according to the manufactory's instructions.
Methods: Meso scale discovery system and commercial ELISA kits were used to measure the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1[sz]; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a); IL-6; and IL-17 and CC and CXC chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22
, and CCL26 and CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatics and controls.
These 27 SNPs in 12 chemokine genes, included 4 SNPs (rs1024610, rs1024611, rs13900, and rs4586) of CCL2 [21, 22], 5 SNPs (rs4251719, rs2306630, rs2107538, rs9355610, and rs2280788) of CCL5 [12, 23, 24], 1 SNP (rs854680) of CCL16 , 2 SNPs (rs223828 and rs223895) of CCL17 [26-28], 3 SNPs (rs951005, rs2492358, and rs2812378) of CCL21 [29-31], 1 SNP (rs4359426) of CCL22
, 2 SNPs (rs2302004 and rs2302005) of CCL24 , 3 SNPs (rs2227306, rs2227543, and rs4694178) of CXCL8 , 2 SNPs (rs2276886 and rs2869460) of CXCL9 [14, 35], 1 SNP (rs2869462) of CXCL10 , 2 SNPs (rs1801157 and rs2839693) of CXCL12 [13, 15], and 1 SNP (rs2277680) of CXCL16 .
(5) In our previous studies, higher levels of a Th17-related chemokine (CCL20) and lower levels of a Th2/Treg-related chemokine (CCL22
) were observed in patients with MS.
IL-4 induced M2 macrophages expressed high concentration of IL-10, decoy receptor IL-1R, IL-1R antagonist, chemokines CCL22
and CCL17, and intracellular enzyme arginase-1.
Suppression of inflammation by recombinant Salmonella typhimurium harboring CCL22