CCL22


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CCL22

A gene on chromosome 16q13 that encodes a CC-type cytokine, which is characterised by two adjacent cysteines and, as with all cytokines, is involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. CCL22 binds CCR4 and is chemotactic for monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes—but not for neutrophils, eosinophils or resting T lymphocytes. CCL22 may also play a role in trafficking activated T lymphocytes to sites of inflammation.
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The researchers confirmed the relationship between deltaNp63 and MDSCs, showing that blocking two signaling molecules, CXCL2 and CCL22, activated by the protein reduced metastasis and blood-vessel growth associated with tumor growth, while increasing levels of these signaling molecules, caused MDSCs to boost the secretion of pro-tumor growth factors.
(64) and CSF CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL13, CCL20, CCL22, NfL, NfH, GFAP, chitinase-3-like-1 MMP-9, osteopontin levels in RIS and RRMS cases Petzold (65) Relationship between CSF NfH values and clinical EDSS Petzold et al.
GM-CSF is basically a hematopoietic and myelopoietic growth factor (17,18) which also promotes production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as 'TNF-[alpha], IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-1[beta] as well as chemokines like CCL22, CCL24, CCL5 and CCL1 which promote leukocyte recruitment' (17).
Seven ligands, CCL11, CCL17, CCL20, CCL22, XCL1, XCL2, and CX3CL1, were categorized as dual-function chemokines, which have both inflammatory and homeostatic functions.
Aomatsu-Kikuchi et al., "SCRG1 suppresses LPS-induced CCL22 production through ERK1/2 activation in mouse macrophage Raw264.7 cells," Molecular Medicine Reports, vol.
Moreover, the migration of [CD4.sup.+] [CD25.sup.+] T cells to periodontitis that affected gingival tissues seemed to be dependent on CCL17 and CCL22 expression by the local inflammatory infiltrate, which recruits Treg expressing CCR4 or CCR8 [37, 38].
Plasma concentrations of IFN-[gamma], CXCL9, IL-4, CCL22, IL-23, and CCL20 were measured using Quantikine[R] ELISA from R&D Systems according to the manufactory's instructions.
Methods: Meso scale discovery system and commercial ELISA kits were used to measure the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1[sz]; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a); IL-6; and IL-17 and CC and CXC chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 and CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatics and controls.
These 27 SNPs in 12 chemokine genes, included 4 SNPs (rs1024610, rs1024611, rs13900, and rs4586) of CCL2 [21, 22], 5 SNPs (rs4251719, rs2306630, rs2107538, rs9355610, and rs2280788) of CCL5 [12, 23, 24], 1 SNP (rs854680) of CCL16 [25], 2 SNPs (rs223828 and rs223895) of CCL17 [26-28], 3 SNPs (rs951005, rs2492358, and rs2812378) of CCL21 [29-31], 1 SNP (rs4359426) of CCL22 [32], 2 SNPs (rs2302004 and rs2302005) of CCL24 [33], 3 SNPs (rs2227306, rs2227543, and rs4694178) of CXCL8 [34], 2 SNPs (rs2276886 and rs2869460) of CXCL9 [14, 35], 1 SNP (rs2869462) of CXCL10 [35], 2 SNPs (rs1801157 and rs2839693) of CXCL12 [13, 15], and 1 SNP (rs2277680) of CXCL16 [36].
(5) In our previous studies, higher levels of a Th17-related chemokine (CCL20) and lower levels of a Th2/Treg-related chemokine (CCL22) were observed in patients with MS.
IL-4 induced M2 macrophages expressed high concentration of IL-10, decoy receptor IL-1R, IL-1R antagonist, chemokines CCL22 and CCL17, and intracellular enzyme arginase-1.