CCL21


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CCL21

A gene on chromosome 9p13 that encodes a CC-type cytokine, which is characterised by two adjacent cysteines and, as with all cytokines, is involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. CCL21 binds CCR7, inhibits haemopoiesis and is chemotactic for thymocytes and activated T cells—but not B cells, macrophages or neutrophils; it may also play a role in homing lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid tissue.
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2011) Neuronal CCL21 up-regulates microglia P2X4 expression and initiates neuropathic pain development.
For visualization of the effects of CCL21 on the intracellular retention of Rh123, 5 x [10.
CCL21 Promotes Chemoresistance and Upregulates P-gp in HCT116 Cells.
CCL21 Induces Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of HCT116 Cells.
The results revealed that CCL21 can increase the protein levels of Snail via a time dependent manner (Figure 3(a)), while having limited effects on the mRNA expression (Figure 3(b)).
To verify the roles of Snail in CCL21 induced chemoresistance and stem cell properties, we knocked down Snail by its specific siRNA (Figure 3(c)) and then investigated the chemoresistance variation and mammosphere forming ability of HCT116 cells treated with or without CCL21.
To further verify the role of Snail in CCL21 promoted chemoresistance, we overexpressed Snail in HCT116 cells by transfection of pcDNA3.
Abbreviations: BBB = Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (scale); CCL21 = chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21; ERK = extracellular signal-regulated kinase; IL = interleukin; IP = intraperitoneal, L + number = lumbar spinal segment; MAP = mitogenactivated protein (kinase); PARP-1 = poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1; PB = phasic brush; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; PGE2 = prostaglandin E2; SC = subcutaneous, SCI = spinal cord injury; T9 = ninth thoracic; TNF-[alpha] = tumor necrosis factor-alpha; VPL = ventral posterolateral.
45) This finding was later verified by multiphoton microscopy, which showed that DCs crawl into lymphatics independent of integrins (46) and that they are guided into lymphatics by a tissue-immobilized gradient of CCL21 in an integrin-independent but CCR7-dependent manner.
CCL21 binds a lymphatic EC marker podoplanin with high affinity, is expressed on the basal lamina of lymphatics, and is shed into the perivascular stroma, (51) which may contribute to the formation of a peri-lymphatic CCL21 concentration gradient.
46) Podoplanin expressed on lymphatic ECs can capture CCL21 (see above) and also binds a lectin-type molecule CLEC-2.
2014) The atypical chemokine receptor CCRL1 shapes functional CCL21 gradients in lymph nodes.