To further study the expression profiles of CC family members and the immune-regulatory mechanisms of large yellow croaker, this study reports the molecular characteristics and expression profile of three genes (dual chemokine ligand CCL17 and homeostatic chemokines ligands CCL21
and CCL24) following bacterial challenge.
Furthermore, compared with the BDL rats, TNF-[alpha] (0.5-fold, P < 0.01), IL-1[beta] (0.6-fold, P < 0.05), and TGF-[beta] (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) decreased in the BDL+AICAR rats, and there was a significant decline in CD68 (0.78-fold, P < 0.05), CD40 (0.78-fold, P < 0.05), IL17[alpha](0.5-fold, P < 0.05), IL-21 (0.6-fold, P < 0.05), and CCL19 (0.7-fold, P < 0.01), while CD40 ligand and CCL21
remained unchanged (Figure 3).
It is well known that CCL2 or CCL21
is a member of CC chemokines.
The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible involvement of BM-MSCs in the pathophysiology of COPD by evaluating the expression of genes involved in proliferation/migration process, namely, the CXCL12a/CXCR4 and CCR7/CCL19, CCL21
Twenty-six SNPs covering 12 chemokine genes (CCL2, CCL5, CCL16, CCL17, CCL21
, CCL22, CCL24, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12, and CXCL16) were genotyped successfully and all SNPs of controls met the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
This would make an up-regulation of CXCR4 or CCR7 and their respective chemokine ligands (CXCL12, CCL19 and CCL21
) (Lin et al., 1998; Ouwehand et al., 2008, 2010) possibly obsolete in gingiva (Allam et al., 2008).
Enhancement of immunity by a DNA melanoma vaccine against TRP2 with CCL21
as an adjuvant.
Chemokines released from injured neurons, such as CCL2 and CCL21
, have been regarded as potential inductors of P2X4R expression [74, 75].
(2003) found that LPS-stimulated, bone marrow derived mouse DC incubated with Salbutamol, an agonist of the [[beta].sub.2] receptor for NE, inhibited the DC release of the inflammatory chemokines CCL19 and CCL21
in vitro .
We have also worked out the mechanism by which the SCI triggers remote microglial activation in the thalamus via the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21
) , which triggers a cascade that results in neuronal hyperexcitability [14-16].
Salmonella Typhimurium has indeed been used to transport immunomodulating proteins such as LIGHT , interleukin-18 , and the chemokine CCL21
, in breast cancer and colon cancer murine models; in all cases, regression of the primary tumor was observed as well as of its pulmonary metastases, where the antitumor activity was associated to the recruitment of DCs, macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, and lymphocytes.
Hence, the HEV basal lamina binds locally produced lymphoid chemokines, including CCL21
, CCL19, CXCL12, and CXCL13, creating a chemokine-rich environment.