CCL13


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CCL13

A gene on chromosome 17q11.2 that encodes monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), a CC-type cytokine characterised by two adjacent cysteines, as well as involvement in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. MCP-4/CCL13 binds CCR2B and CCR3 and is chemotactic for monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils (but not neutrophils). It plays a role in accumulation of leukocytes during inflammation, and may recruit monocytes into arterial plaques during atherosclerosis.
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Expression of M1 macrophage markers, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7), CCL19, CXCL11, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and of M2 macrophage markers, including mannose receptor C-type 1 (MRC1), MAF bZIP transcription factor (MAF), CCL13, filaggrin family member 2 (FLG2), and arginase 1 (ARG1) [41, 42], was analyzed using RT-qPCR.
In particular, the levels of TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL13, CCL22, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 in AM secretions from smokers were significantly different from healthy subjects [126, 144-152].
Methods: Meso scale discovery system and commercial ELISA kits were used to measure the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1[sz]; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a); IL-6; and IL-17 and CC and CXC chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 and CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatics and controls.
Chemokines whose concentrations were measured in the present study included CXCL8 (IL-8), CXCL9 (monokine induced by gamma interferon), CXCL10 (interferon-gamma-induced protein 10 [IP-10]), CXCL11 (interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant), CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1[sz] [MIP-1[sz]]), CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL26 (eotaxin-3), CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC]), CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine [MDC]), CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]), and CCL13 (MCP-4).
These chemokines include CCL13, CCL2, CXCL16, CXCL9, CCL8, CXCL11, and CXCL10.
Additionally, the upregulation of chemokines such as CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL16, CCL2, CCL8, and CCL13 detected by microarray may facilitate T cell recruitment to MSC-[gamma].
ACKR2 binds most inflammatory CC-chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL3, CCL4, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL23, and CCL24) leading to their degradation, thereby reducing local levels of inflammatory chemokines.
HBX gene expression in HL-7702 and CCL13 cell lines by Hong-Ying Chen (11) and Di-Peng Ou (12) and also, frequently in Hep G2 cells (13) was employed.
Classification Number Cytokines Panel 1 6 TNF-RII, IL19, CCL5/RANTES, MIF, MPO, Galectin-3bp Panel 2 1 IL-23 IFN/gamma, TNF/alpha, TNF/RI, GM/CSF, Panel 3 37 IL/1 beta, IL/1ra, IL1/RII, IL2, IL2 R alpha, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL6R alpha, CXCL8/ IL8, IL10, IL/15, IL17A, IL22, CCL2, CCL4, CCL7, CCL11, CCL13, CCL18, CCL22, CCL27, CXCL1/GRO alpha, CXCL4, CXCL10, CXCL12/SDF-1 alpha, CXCL13, CD14, CD27, CD30, CD40, NCAM-1/CD56, B7-H1/PD-L1/ CD274 Table 2: The outcomes of monkeys infected with M.
(2008) was used to determine the glucose uptake in C2C12 (CRL-1772), Chang (CCL13) and 3T3-L1 (CL-173) cells (American Type Culture Collection, VA, USA).
The CC chemokine receptor CCR3 is expressed on eosinophils [57], macrophages [58], and T cells [59] and binds the chemokines CCL5, CCL7, CCL11, CCL13, CCL24, and CCL24, all of which are expressed by IECs.
Chemokines including CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CXCL5, CXCL8, and CXCL10 are upregulated in different depots of adipose tissue.