Inside the cells, metformin increases IRS-2, p-PI3K, p-PKB, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2
), CREB, p-GSKS[beta] (inactive form), enzymes of glycolysis like phosphofructokinase (PFK), and Kreb's cycle enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase).
Normally Hes1 acts as a transcriptional repressor but under the influence of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2
) it becomes a transcriptional activator, thus upregulating MMP13 expression .
Washington, June 24 (ANI): Scientists have identified two biochemical pathways-PI3 kinase pathway and the CAMK2 pathway-that are vital for Ebola virus infection.
After subjecting that output to further computational analysis, they found that two networks of biochemical reactions seemed particularly important to Ebola's entry into cells: The PI3 kinase pathway and the CAMK2 pathway.
Besides, in skeletal muscle, contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation also occurs, involving at least two proteins: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and [Ca.sup.2+]/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK2
) , which can operate in addition to insulin-triggered ones.