crassulacean acid metabolism

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crassulacean acid metabolism

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crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)

a method of PHOTOSYNTHESIS found in certain succulent plants (members of the family Crassulaceae) that live in hot, dry climates and close their stomata during the day to avoid excessive TRANSPIRATION losses and open them at night. During the night CO2 is taken in and stored as organic acids (e.g. malic acid); during the day the CO2 is released from the organic acids and used in the CALVIN CYCLE.
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Chlorophyll a fluorescence has allowed inferences on the efficiency of the photochemical phase of photosynthesis and can be useful in studies on the physiological behavior of CAM plants (Romo-Campos et al., 2013; Cruz et al., 2014; Diez et al., 2017).
On the basis of investigations in CAM plants, a stoichiometry of [2H.sup.+] transported/ ATP hydrolysed was frequently measured, but values ranged from 1.7-3.3 [H.sup.+]/ATP [4,41].
High photosynthetic capacity in a shade tolerant CAM plant: implications for sunfleck use, nonphotochemical energy dissipation, and susceptibility to photoinhibition.
Although enhanced water use efficiency is the ultimate selective force in terrestrial CAM plant evolution, the proximal selective factor is enhanced daytime intercellular [CO.sub.2] partial pressure ([p.sub.i]).
CAM plants, like [C.sub.4] plants, are adapted to hot temperatures.
Instead of partitioning metabolites in space (between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells), CAM plants use PEP carboxylase to fix the carbon into malate, which is then stored until the next day, when the carbon is released and refixed in normal Calvin cycle metabolism.
CAM plants take up carbon dioxide at night and store it as malic acid that is decarboxylated the following day; the carbon dioxide released is then fixed using the [C.sub.3] pathway.
The lowest response to higher CO2 levels is usually from the CAM plants, which include pineapples, agaves, and many cacti and other succulents.
These environment-coupled models will be used to address the second research objective: 2) model-driven studies of c4 and cam metabolism: The extended diel models will be used to investigate metabolic engineeringstrategies for improved productivity under high temperatures (e.g., By introducing c4) and to understand the trade-offbetween productivity and water-use efficiency in both c3 and cam plants.