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1. a thornlike process or projection; called also acantha and spina.
2. the rigid bony structure in the midline of the back, composed of the vertebrae; called also backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.

The spinal column is the axis of the skeleton; the skull and limbs are in a sense appendages. The vertebrae also provide the protective bony corridor (spinal canal) through which the spinal cord passes; they can move to a certain extent and so give flexibility to the spine, allowing it to bend forward, sideways and, to a lesser extent, backward. In the areas of the neck and lower back, the spine also can pivot, which permits the turning of the head and torso.

There are usually 24 movable vertebrae and nine that are fused together. The topmost are the seven cervical vertebrae, which form the back of the neck, supporting the skull. The head turns from side to side by means of a pivotal motion between the two highest vertebrae. Below these are the 12 thoracic vertebrae, the supports on which the ribs are hinged, and then the five lumbar vertebrae, the largest movable vertebrae (the cervical are the smallest). Below the lumbar vertebrae, the spine terminates with two groups of vertebrae fused into single bones: the sacrum, composed of five vertebrae, and the coccyx, composed of four vertebrae. Viewed from the side of the body, the spine has the shape of a gentle double S curve.
Malformations of the Spine. Of the various types of spinal malformations, some are congenital and others the result of postural defects or injuries. spina bifida is congenital. kyphosis may occasionally be congenital but is more often caused by one of the diseases that attack the structure of the bones. The most common of these is pott's disease, or tuberculosis affecting the vertebrae and soft tissues of the spine. Another is osteitis deformans, a type of bone inflammation in which parts of the bone are replaced by softer tissue. scoliosis is a curvature of the spine toward one side.
cervical spine that portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae.
lumbar spine that portion of the spine comprising the lumbar vertebrae.
thoracic spine that part of the spine comprising the thoracic vertebrae.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate C-spine movements during endotracheal intubation of healthy surgical patients using LMA CTrach, C-MAC videolaryngoscope and a conventional laryngoscope using a Macintosh blade.
Caption: Figure 2: A sagittal T-weighted MRI of the C-spine of the patient on May 22, 2017, after the antifungal treatment.
Repeat radiographic imaging was normal, but static and dynamic views of the C-spine were normal with no evidence of instability.
Although Jamal BT et al, claimed that fall was the most frequent cause of C-spine injury with facial fractures and C spine level 2 fractures remained the most common fracture with facial fractures accounting for 45.5% of the injuries.5 Hackl et al studied 4,907 patients with cervical spine injury and observed that 2.1% of them had suffered a concomitant facial injury.6
Healey and his colleagues conducted a 4-year review of trauma patients aged 55 years and older who were treated for a C-spine fracture.
The Canadian C-spine rule performs better than unstructured physician judgment.
Mechanisms of injury are age related, with younger children sustaining C-spine injuries as a result of motor vehicle accidents and older adolescents commonly injured during sporting activities.
"The occupants were all stable but all of them had suspected c-spine injuries.
[3.] Kim EG, Brown KM, Leonard JC, Jaffe DM, Olsen CS, Kuppermann N; C-Spine Study Group of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN).
There was no significant difference observed in the number of repeat CT scans of the c-spine before and after the implementation of ImageGrid[TM] There was a trend toward a decrease in the number of repeat CT scans of the face, (5/9 [55.6%] vs.
Several physicians living near C-spine dumps have seen their dens eroded.