By modifying gene expression by the axolotls' microRNA, they forced the human pairing of c-Fos with c-Jun
. The salamanders with the human pairings couldn't regain a functioning spinal cord after injury, instead forming the scar tissue that occurs in human injury repair.
Among the signal transduction pathways in pituitary gonadotrophs, the PKC-MAPK pathway primarily activates c-Jun
, Elk-1, and Egr-1, and the cAMP-PKA pathway primarily activates CREB and Egr-1, while the Ca2+-mediated signaling pathway primarily activates Nur77, c-Jun
, and Egr-1 (Naor et al., 1997; Melamed et al., 2012; Thompson et al., 2013).
The results showed that the phosphorylated levels of JNK and c-Jun
were both decreased after APS treatment (P<0.05 or P< 0.01, Figure 5).
The mRNA expression of PTEN, CTNNB1, MAG, CCND1 , and c-Jun
in the Wnt signaling pathway was further detected by qrt-PCR.
Pathophysiological significance of c-jun
N-terminal kinase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.
Spearman correlation (r) and p-value (p) of exposure indices Cr, Ni and Mn serum levels with concentration of CC16, prolactin and corticosterone, TBARS, LDH and serum protein levels of transcription factors NF-[kappa]B and c-JUN
in controls and rats exposed to dust WD and soluble form of dust SWD.
c-fos-encoded nuclear phosphoprotein plays an important role in the information transduction between external stimuli and transcription coupling, and it is also known as the "third messenger in the nucleus, immediate early gene." c-Fos binds to c-Jun
as a dimer, namely, AP-1 .
Membranes were probed with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against phosphorylated p38 MAPK, total p38 MAPK, phosphorylated JNK and total JNK, rabbit monoclonal antibodies against phosphorylated c-Jun
and total c-Jun
, or mouse monoclonal antibody against [beta]-actin.
Subsequently, there was an increase in its downstream phosphorylated c-jun
(a subunit of activator protein-1) in endothelial cells treated with TNF-[alpha] for 1 h (Figures 7(g) and 7(h)).
We performed quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting to assess the expression of ATF2, IL-1[beta], IL-6, TNF, c-Fos, and c-Jun
at the protein level.
NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNKs) is part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family [1, 2] and is represented in mammals by three genes coding for three isoforms: JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3.
Protein Expression Analysis by Western Blot of gp91-phox, NF-kB, ICAM-1, vWF, CD31, eNOS, Caspase-3 (Cleaved Caspase-3), and c-Jun
. For this purpose, total proteins were extracted from the brains of SHRSP and SHRSR at the end of either RD or JD treatment.