Chlamydia trachomatis

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Chla·myd·i·a tra·cho·ma·tis

spheric nonmotile bacteria that are obligatory intracellular organisms; they form compact intracytoplasmic microcolonies up to 10 mcm in diameter that (by division) give rise to infectious spherules 0.3 mcm or larger in diameter, accumulate glycogen for a limited period in sufficient quantity to be detected by iodine stain, and are usually susceptible to sulfadiazine, tetracycline, and quinalones; various strains of this species cause trachoma, inclusion and neonatal conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, mouse pneumonitis, nonspecific urethritis, epididymitis, cervicitis, salpingitis, proctitis, and pneumonia; chief agent of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S.; the type species of the genus Chlamydia.

Chlamydia trachomatis

STD A human pathogen, similar to gonorrhea in transmission and disease; it is found in the cervix and urethra and survives in the throat or rectum Epidemiology It is the most common STD agent in the US–causing ± 4.5 million cases/yr; it is present in 1-3% of all ♂ and 15-40% of ♀ in STD clinics Clinical Inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis, epididymitis and proctitis in ♂, mucopurulent cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis–C trachomatis is implicated in 50% of salpingitis and PID, bartholinitis, and acute urethral syndrome in ♀ and conjunctivitis and pneumonia in neonates; infection may be asymptomatic Diagnosis Direct fluorescent antibody staining, solid phase immunoassay, ELISA, cell culture, nucleic acid probe, PCR Complications Fallopian tube destruction, ±infertility, ectopic/tubal pregnancy, preterm delivery, severe PID Management Doxycycline, azithromycin. Cf Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Chla·myd·i·a tra·cho·ma·tis

(klă-mi'dē-a trak-ō'mă-tis)
Spheric nonmotile organisms that accumulate glycogen and are susceptible to sulfadiazine and tetracycline; various strains of this species cause trachoma, inclusion and neonatal conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, nonspecific urethritis, epididymitis, cervicitis, salpingitis, proctitis, and pneumonia; chief agent of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. The type species of the genus Chlamydia.

Chlamydia trachomatis

A species that causes a great variety of diseases, including genital infections in men and women. The diseases caused by C. trachomatis include conjunctivitis, epididymitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, pelvic inflammatory disease, pneumonia, trachoma, tubal scarring, and infertility.

C. trachomatis is a commonly sexually transmitted pathogen (causing more than a million chlamydial infections in the U.S. each year). Men with chlamydial infection experience penile discharge and discomfort while urinating. Women may be asymptomatic or may experience urethral or vaginal discharge, painful or frequent urination, lower abdominal pain, or acute pelvic inflammatory disease, which may result in infertility.

Transmission of the disease can be prevented by avoiding contact with infected people and by using condoms during intimate sex. A pregnant woman with a chlamydial infection can transmit the disease to her newborn during birth. In newborns, ophthalmic antibiotic solution should be instilled in the conjunctival sac of each eye to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis and blindness caused by Chlamydia.

Diagnosis

Several tests are available, including cultures, antigen detection assays, ligase chain reactions, polymerase chain reactions, and enzyme-linked immunoassays.

Treatment

Erythromycin, azithromycin, or tetracycline is effective.

CAUTION!

Tetracyclines are generally not recommended for pregnant women or children under 8 years old.
See also: Chlamydia
References in periodicals archive ?
This is especially so if the patient has a history of orogenital contact, suggesting the possibility of exposure to C trachomatis.
Roche Amplicor C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae PCR (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Urine specimens positive for either C trachomatis or N gonorrhoeae were processed for in-house PCR as follows: specimens were vortexed briefly and 1-mL aliquots were centrifuged at 20 000 rcf for 10 minutes at 4 [degrees] C.
Using culture, the researchers detected C trachomatis in 12.9% of females and 8.5% of males.
The prevalence of C trachomatis infection in our study was 9.0%.
A total of 527 patient specimens were collected from March 1991 to May 1991, and tested for C trachomatis. Complete data are available for 506 subjects.
None of the 54 women with a history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the past had a culture positive for C trachomatis. Of the 14 women seen because
Uncentrifuged urine and centrifuged urine sediment were tested for C trachomatis by an enzyme immunoassay.
The purpose of the investigation reported here was a comparative evaluation of these two enzyme immunoassay test kits for the detection of C trachomatis endocervical infections.
C trachomatis infection rates are variable, and range from 2% to 26%.
One problem with C trachomatis infections is that they are frequently subtle and patients are often asymptomatic.
C trachomatis seems to be a specific pathogen for humans,[29] and 15 serotypes have been recognized.[30] Long before modern laboratory study, it was epidemiologically observed that nongonococcal urethritis in men was related to cervical infection in women, which in turn was related to ophthalmia neonatorum in infants born vaginally.[29]