The genus Cryptococcus contains at least 39 basidiomycetous fungal species, with C gattii and C neoformans being involved most commonly in infections in people and animals alike.
While C neoformans has a worldwide distribution often related to the presence of pigeon guano and soil rich in organic matter, C gattii has a more restricted distribution and is associated with the presence of various species of trees.
Molecular typing methods further divided Cryptococcus species into 8 genotypes: VNI to VNIV for C neoformans, and VGI to VGIV for C gattii.
The spectrum of diseases caused by C neoformans ranges from pulmonary infection to disseminated disease frequently involving the central nervous system, and occasionally skin and bone.
Three days later, the patient's ascitic fluid culture grew C neoformans. Subsequent search for disseminated disease included microbiological studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and urine.
The respiratory tract is considered to be the usual port of entry of C neoformans. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been proposed as a potential site either following ingestion or possible direct inoculation of C neoformans into the blood stream following upper GI bleeding or overgrowth of fungus after antibiotic use.
grubii/neoformans; 251 (92.6%) of them were C neoformans
The cerebrospinal fluid culture grew C neoformans. The patient was treated with intravenous fluconazole.
(2-4) The primary reservoir of C neoformans is birds; their droppings allow for transmission to humans via inhalation.
None of the other dimorphic fungi have the propensity for central nervous system involvement that C neoformans does.
Secreted phospholipase has been proposed as a virulence determinant in C neoformans. Phospholipase production by the egg yolk plate method, and in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole by using the disk diffusion test were performed on 17 C neoformans isolates.
The etiologic agent of cryptococcosis is the hasidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoforrnans, (3,4) with 3 varieties recognized initially, C neoformans var grubii, (5) C neoformans var neoformans, and C neoformans var gattii.