The Burmese bells are number one among all the aphrodisiacs, and the best kind is worth up to several hundred [liang] of silver.
First, the paper introduces scholars outside China to Chinese sources on the Burmese bells. Chinese scholars have gathered many Chinese sources on this subject, but they are still far from complete.
One is that as most of the scholars are from the field of literature, the historical and social background of the spread of the Burmese bells to China has been neglected.
Third, echoes of the Burmese bells can be heard in China in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
This same novel also mentioned sexual aids like Burmese bells and 'round pearl' (zoupan zhu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] but their functions are not recorded in any Chinese texts) were produced in the Western Ocean Country (Xiyang guo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]).
The search for more aphrodisiacs by the Chinese led to their discovery of Burmese bells, facilitated by a war.
[The Burmese males] insert Burmese bells into their penises, some two and some three.
He was lascivious by nature, dressed in unusual clothes, and his body was tattooed with strange designs.' In particular, he also wore Burmese bells. (31) Apparently, Yue Feng had been totally assimilated to Tai culture.
The story should have ended here but it did not, because of one episode: when Yue Feng was dismembered, '[it was found his] penis glands were adorned with several Burmese bells, but soon they were cut off by the executioner and sold to high-ranking officials at a high price'.
(33) The Jin Ping Mei states that the Burmese bells (Mian[zi] ling [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] 34) were obtained from foreign soldiers (fanbing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) and brought to Beijing by unknown persons.
Yunnan officials had easier access to Burmese bells due to geographical proximity, and they presented them as gifts to each other and even called them 'Taiji pill' (Taiji wan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) in their communication.
What about the possibility of the arrival of the Burmese bells in China via the maritime route, especially through trade during the late sixteenth century?