Bulbar muscles

Bulbar muscles

Muscles of the mouth and throat responsible for speech and swallowing.
References in periodicals archive ?
The bulbar muscles are also affected, which causes disruptive problems regarding swallowing and speech.
Patients develop muscle weakness, especially of the muscles of respiration (including neck flexors and bulbar muscles) and proximal muscles, as well as cranial nerve palsies.
As such, LGMD constitutes a heterogeneous group of myopathies, but all leading to proximal muscle weakness, with relative sparing of heart and bulbar muscles. The major forms of LGMD result from mutations in genes encoding constituents of the sarcolemmal dystrophin complex, e.g., laminin (LGMD1B), sarcoglycan (LGMD2C-F), and dysferlin (LGMD2B).
Nineteen IBP and 80 PBP patients were not capable of finishing FVC assessment because of weakness or amyotrophy of bulbar muscles, or refusal of patients for some other reasons such as inspection fee or time of appointment.{Table 2}
The term "locked-in syndrome" (LIS) was defined as complete paralysis of bulbar muscles and all extremities with preserved consciousness, leaving the patients with only vertical eye movements and blinking.
Mild generalized myasthenia Type IIa Tip IIa Slowly progressive often from ocular muscles to skeletal and bulbar muscles; however.
These findings usually begin in the upper extremity in 30%-50% of cases, lower extremity in 20%-40% of cases, and bulbar muscles in 20%-30% of cases (4).
(2014) reported Coenurus cerebralis cyst in the orbit of a ewe and performed enucleation of eye and they observed a cyst filled with translucent sandy fluid in periorbital fat, after cutting the retractor bulbar muscles.
The main side effects from this form of treatment are dysphagia, due to diffusion into nearby bulbar muscles, weak mastication, parotid gland infection, damage to the facial nerve/artery and dental caries.
The weakness can vary from mild difficulty with walking to nearly complete paralysis of all extremity, facial, respiratory, and bulbar muscles.
Less commonly, the first symptoms are in the bulbar muscles ( muscles around the face and throat.
The main problems occur with the mouth, tongue and swallowing muscles as a result of the bulbar muscles being affected.